1. differentiate between product and chemical tankers
Ans; product tanker oil tanker engaged in carrying oil other than crude oil is termed product tanker
chemical tanker a ship constructed for the carriage in bulk of any liquid product listed in chapter 17 of IBC code ( international bulk chemical code)

  1. under revised annex can vegetable oil be carried on product tankers
Ans; No it has to be carried on chemical tankers as per GSEAMP( group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine environmental protection) studies which revised the annex II categorization depending on bio – accumulation bio degradation

  1. differentiate between convention and protocol, eg protocol
Ans;   Conventions Generally used for formal multilateral treaties with a broad number of parties. Conventions are normally open for participation by the international community as a whole, or by a large number of states. Usually the instruments negotiated under the auspices of an international organization are entitled conventions
A Protocol of Signature is an instrument subsidiary to a treaty, and drawn up by the same parties. Ratification of the treaty will normally ipso facto involve ratification of such a Protocol.
 A Protocol based on a Framework Treaty is an instrument with specific substantive obligations that implements the general objectives of a previous framework. Such protocols ensure a more simplified and accelerated treaty-making process.
 A Protocol to amend is an instrument that contains provisions that amend one or various former treaties, A Protocol as a supplementary treaty is an instrument which contains supplementary provisions to a previous treaty.
 Protocols are made when major amendments are required to be made to a convention which, although already adopted
An Optional Protocol to a Treaty is an instrument that establishes additional rights and obligations to a treaty. It is usually adopted on the same day, but is of independent character and subject to independent
EXAMPLE of protocol- MARPOL73/78

  1. general average , can master discharge the oil to save the ship
Ans; A general average act is defined in Rule A of the York Antwerp Rules 1994 and Marine Insurance Act as follows:
“There is a general average act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure.”
The five component parts of a general average loss are therefore:
a) an extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure,
b) which is intentionally                      
c) and reasonably made
d) against a peril,
e) in order to benefit the common venture
yes master can discharge oil into sea As per MARPOL regulation 4 annex I, to save life at sea, securing the safety of ship, to minimize the effect of damage
Example of GA- damage caused to machinery while re-floating the vessel after grounding, or jettison of cargo.

  1. why beam is large on tankers

  1. discuss any contingency and action taken
Ans; FLOODING, ACTION TAKEN- sound emergency alarm, reduce speed or stop if at sea, access nature of failure and risk to environment, start all available bilge pumps,,, close water tight doors, locate and isolate damage if the flooding due to engine room pipe lines, consider internal transfer to minimize the damage, analyze fire and explosion risks, ensure stability of vessel, refer to damaged control plan, consider jettison  of cargo to keep vessel under stable conditions, incase of major flooding close dead lights and ports on all lower decks (if applicable), close the vent heads in the cargo tanks ,consider the vessels manoeuvre ability and if any towing or external help is required, prepare for LSA equipments or lifeboat if necessary, ACTION PLAN- inform ships in vicinity, inform nearest coastal authorities, inform company.
FIRE;, ACTION TAKEN- raise emergency alarm, inform bridge, muster and take head count, carry out duties as per muster list such as stopping of ventilation, shutting down vent flaps, evacuation and first aid to casualty if any, operation of emergency and remote stops & shut downs, boundary cooling, closure of fire and watertight doors, fight the fire if possible, if major fire refer to contingency plan , for engine room and cargo hold release CO2  where applicable, access the damage to hull , machinery if any and analyze the assistance required from shore- with regards to fire fighting or other technical guidance, also access the possibility of pollution prevention. Maintain vessel under stable conditions at all times. If the situation becomes worse prepare for the abandoning
ACTION PLAN; inform ships in vicinity inform nearest coastal authority, inform office.

  1. discuss any major survey on board
preparations-ample mount of time and assistance is available for survey, ensure the availability of  spare tubes and changing material on board, manhole gaskets, gland packing and mountings  isolate the boiler, follow the shutting down procedure and put placards, when boiler pressure becomes one bar open the vent valve, and blow down he boiler,  let the boiler shell be cooled down , give sufficient time- one day, fill up the required documentations under ISM such as steam and pressurized vessel checklists,
drain the boiler and ensure that blow down valves on ship side are closed. Open the bottom manhole door and mud hole doors, slacken the nuts and break the gasket seal prior removing, open the top manhole door, slacken the door, tie it up and keep clear , hammer the door from top so that it  hangs inside,  tag and dismantle all the mountings, measure the safety valve clearances and document the same, overhaul the dismantled mountings and keep them nicely on floor for inspection by the surveyor, carry out the recommendation as suggested by the surveyor,  fill up the enclosed space checklist before entering the enclosed spaces such as smoke box and furnace, clean the boiler furnace and smoke side for the inspections, after survey box up all the mountings with new packing, prepare the boiler for cold firing, raise the steam pressure below the rated boiler working pressure and test all the boiler safeties, such as  HWL, LWL,LLWL, oil temp high, low oil pressure, flame failure, ID fan failure, cut outs and alarms upon satisfactory operation of all above ,test for any leaks from any of the mountings and call the surveyor for completion of the survey for checking the safety valve setting, gag one safety valve and fire the boiler in front of the surveyor, raise the pressure in steps till the safety valve lifts at the desired pressure,  repeat the gag test with the other safety valve, once the surveyor is satisfied, the  survey is finished and boiler can be put into use.

  1. what is the advantage of high voltage and how it is generated

  1. what is HSSC
Ans; Protocol of 1988 relating to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea 1974, which harmonies the periods of validity and intervals between surveys for the nine main convention certificates. In so doing it aims to simplify the survey and certification process, HSSC will bring benefits to the industry in terms of flexibility of survey schedule, reduced numbers of surveyors, survey time and paperwork, all therefore reducing costs.

A new Cargo Ship Safety Certificate (CSSC), which includes provision for recording all the surveys required for the Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate, the Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate and the Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate, may be issued as an alternative to the existing cargo ship safety certificates.
Under the HSSC, there are seven types of survey:
a) Initial Survey: it is a complete inspection before the ship is put into service of all the items relating to the particular certificate to ensure that relevant requirements are complied with
b) Renewal Survey:
it is the same as periodical survey but also leads to issue of new certificate.
c) Periodical Survey:
is an inspection of all the items relating to the particular certificate to ensure that they are in a satisfactory condition.
d) Intermediate Survey:
is an inspection of specified items relevant to a particular certificate to ensure that they are in satisfactory condition
e) Annual Survey:
is a general inspection of the items relating to the particular certificate to ensure that they have been maintained and remain satisfactory for service.
f) Inspection of the Outside of the Ships Bottom:
is an inspection of ships underwater part and related items to ensure that they are satisfactory in condition.
g) Additional Survey:
it is an inspection either general or in partial according to the circumstances made after repairs resulting from accidents, investigations or renewal

  1. differentiate between York Antwerp rules and Hague Visby rules
these are  set of internationally recognized rules for a uniform method of calculating the contribution of parties when there is an general average act. The York/Antwerp Rules, are not the subject of national statutes or international conventions, but are imposed by special clauses in standard form contracts - principally bills of lading.
York Antwerp rules consists of 7 lettered rules and 22 numbered rules, lettered rules deals with principles of general average, where as numbered rules deals with the practices of general average, numbered rues have precedence over the lettered rules when there is a conflict
These rules are international convention for the unification of certain rules relating to the bills of lading, drafted at Hague in 1924
 Due to certain court decisions, and due to advent of containerization and multi modal transportation of goods and due to pound sterling loosing its convertibility to gold The Hague rules in 1968 were amended and called Hague Visby rules. India has adopted a number of provisions of the Hague Visby rules by amending “ the carriage of goods by sea Act 1925

Under The Hague rules shipper bears the cost of loss/damage of the goods if they cannot prove that the vessel was unseaworthy, improperly manned, or unable to safely transport and preserve the cargo.
This means that the carrier can avoid the liability for a risk resulting from human errors provided they exercise due diligence and their vessel is properly manned and seaworthy.
Hague rules do not apply to charter parties unless incorporated therein by agreement,
Whenever Hague rules are adopted by into the national statutes they apply only to the outwards cargos and for inward cargo’s they must be incorporated in the bills of lading.
Hague Visby rules falls mainly in two categories. Rules in the first category establish the obligations of the carrier. Rules in the second category define the maximum immunity to which he is entitled and the extent to which he may limit his liability.

  1. What do u mean by sue and labour clause in insurance

Ans; provides that the assured has a duty to take all reasonable steps to avert or minimize any loss for which a claim would be payable under the policy. In return, most costs incurred in taking such steps are recoverable from the underwriters.
- Was formerly known (in ITC 1/10/83 and older policies) as the Sue and Labour Clause.
* Sue and labour charges are not to be confused with general average expenditure (see G06b). They are incurred for the benefit of only a single interest (e.g. the vessel, or the cargo), whereas general average expenditure is incurred for the common benefit (e.g. of the ship, cargo and freight, if any at risk).
  • Examples of sue and labour charges might include costs incurred by a shipowner in recovering a lost anchor and cable, and costs incurred by a cargo owner of having a refrigerated cargo stored ashore while a ship’s refrigerating machinery is under repair.

  1.  what do you understand by SECA

Ans; sulphur oxide(Sox) emission control area,  areas ; Baltic sea19 may 2006 north sea, and English channel by 19 nov 2007
In such areas
  • either the sulphur content in the fuel should not exceed 1.5% m/m
  • an exhaust gas cleaning system approved by the administration so that emission of Sox including both aux and main propulsion engine should not exceed 6 g /KWhr. Effluents from such washing is to meet the criterion of the port state, otherwise retained on board, 
  • when approaching a SECA the fuel must be changed over to the 1.5% sulphur content fuel and completed before entering the SECA. That is all the fuel lines to the engine must have this fuel only.
There are two approaches to this
    1. Flushing - low sulphur fuel is used to flush out the higher sulphur fuels from the settling/service tank
    2. Duplication of tanks- separate Settling/service tanks are installed for the two types of fuels. This has the potential to simplify the change over procedure and reduce risk of fuel incompatibilities.
The time, ships positions at the start and completion of changeover to and from 1.5% fuel oil must be recorded in a logbook (e.g. ER log. book), together with details of the tanks involved and fuel used. It can be anticipated that the same will be applicable with respect to the EU proposal upon entry into force.
  1.  what do you understand by the bareboat charter
Ans; bareboat charter (sometimes called a charter by demise or demise charter
is a contract for the hire of a vessel for an agreed period during which the charterers acquire most of the rights of the owners, is used by owners such as banks and finance houses who are not prepared to operate or manage ships themselves. a purchase option after expiry of the charter or during the hire period. (Hire payments may include installments of the purchase price, and transfer of ownership may follow the final installment., the vessel owners put the vessel (without any crew) at the complete disposal of the charterers and pay the capital costs, but (usually) no other costs. The charterers have commercial and technical responsibility for the vessel, and pay all costs except capital costs.

  1. york Antwerp rules explain with points

  1. latest SOLAS and MARPOL amendments

  1. what is PSSA( particular sensitive sea area) and what is the difference between special area
Ans: PSSA is an area, which need special protection through action by IMO because of its significance for recognized ecological, or socio economic or scientific reasons and which may be vulnerable to damage by international maritime activities. Eg; Great Barrier Reef
SPECIAL AREA means a sea area where for recognized technical reasons in relation to its oceanographical and ecological conditions and to the particular character of its traffic the adoption of special mandatory methods for the prevention of sea pollution by oil, NLS, garbage, sewage, air, and hazardous substances in packed form. Baltic sea
PSSA can be protected by ships roueting measures such as an area to be avoided, an area with in defined limits in which either navigation is particularly hazardous or it is exceptionally important to avoid causality and which should be avoided by all ships or by certain classes of ships.
Where as in special area no special navigational limitations exists and required discharge criterions laid down as per MARPOL annexes are to be met while enroute

  1. objective of ISM & objective of audit
ans; management failures were described  as "the disease of sloppiness". objective was to ensure safety, to prevent human injury or loss of life, and to avoid damage to the environment, in particular, the marine environment, and to property
The Code became applicable, under chapter IX of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, first for passenger ships, tankers and bulk carriers on 1 July 1998, thereafter for all other ships over 500 GT on 1 July 2002 and has, therefore, been in force globally for just over two years

18.Deviation in insurance
Ans; Deviation; Where a ship, without lawful excuse, deviates from the voyage contemplated by the policy, the insured is discharged from liability as from the time of deviation, and it is immaterial that the ship may have regained her route before any loss occurs.
Several ports of discharge; Where several ports of discharge are specified by the policy, the ship may proceed to all or any of them, but, in the absence of any usage or sufficient cause to the contrary, she must proceed to them, or such of them as she goes to, in the order designated by the policy. If she does not there is a deviation
Excuse for deviation or delay; (a) where authorized by any special term in the policy; or
        (b) where caused by circumstances beyond the control of the master and his employer ; or
        (c) where reasonably necessary in order to comply with an express or implied warranty; or
        (d) where reasonably necessary for the safety of the ship or subject-matter insured; or
        (e) for the purpose of saving human life or aiding a ship in distress where human life may  be in danger; or
        (f) where reasonably necessary for the purpose of obtaining medical or surgical aid for any person on board the ship
When the cause excusing the deviation or delay ceases to operate, the ship must resume her course, and prosecute her voyage,

  1. explain OPRC & HNS conventions
Ans; OPRC is the international convention on oil pollution preparedness response and cooperation. Entered into force 13 may 95, India has ratified, providing a global framework for international co-operation in combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution. Parties to the OPRC convention are required to establish measures for dealing with pollution incidents, either nationally or in co-operation with other countries.
Ships are required to carry a “shipboard oil pollution emergency plan”. Operators of offshore units under the jurisdiction of Parties are also required to have oil pollution emergency plans or similar arrangements which must be coordinated with national systems for responding promptly and effectively to oil pollution incidents. Ships are required to report incidents of pollution to coastal authorities and the convention details the actions that are then to be taken. The convention calls for the establishment of stockpiles of oil spill combating equipment, the holding of oil spill combating exercises and the development of detailed plans for dealing with pollution incidents.
HNS; Like the OPRC Convention, the HNS Protocol aims to provide a global framework for international co-operation in combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution. Parties to the HNS Protocol will be required to establish measures for dealing with pollution incidents, either nationally or in co-operation with other countries. Ships will be required to carry a shipboard pollution emergency plan to deal specifically with incidents involving HNS

  1. Explain FUND convention, CLC conventions
Ans; The purposes of the Fund Convention are:
  • To provide compensation for pollution damage to the extent that the protection afforded by the 1969 Civil Liability Convention is inadequate.
  • Fund provides supplementary compensation to the victims of oil pollution disaster
  • It is an attempt to ensure that damages of the oil pollution are not only borne by the shipping industry but also by the cargo interests.
  • All persons or companies importing more than 150000 tonnes of oil per year shall make contribution to the fund, fund is managed as an independent entity under a supervision of director appointed by IMO.
  • 2000 fund convention was adopted on 18th oct 2000 and EIF on 1st nov 2003, under 2000 regime maximum amount of compensation payable  from the fund under single accident, including the limit established under 2000 CLC protocol is 203 million SDR, however if three states contributing to the fund more than 600tonnes of oil per annum the maximum amount is raised to 300,740,000 SDR
CLC convention
The Civil Liability Convention was adopted to ensure that adequate compensation is available to persons, who suffer oil pollution damage resulting from maritime casualties involving oil-carrying ships. The Convention places the liability for such damage on the owner of the ship from which the polluting oil escaped or was discharged.
The Convention requires ships covered by it to maintain insurance or other financial security in sums equivalent to the owner's total liability for one incident. The Convention applies to all seagoing vessels actually carrying oil in bulk as cargo, but only ships carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil are required to maintain insurance in respect of oil pollution damage. . It is applicable to ships, which actually carry oil in bulk as cargo, i.e. generally laden tankers. Spills from tankers in ballast or bunker spills from ships other than other than tankers are not covered, nor is it possible to recover costs when preventive measures are so successful that no actual spill occurs.
The 1992 protocol also widened the scope of the Convention to cover pollution damage caused in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) or equivalent area of a State Party.
The Protocol also extended the Convention to cover spills from sea-going vessels constructed or adapted to carry oil in bulk as cargo so that it applies apply to both laden and unladen tankers, including spills of bunker oil from such ships
- For a ship not exceeding 5,000 gross tonnage, liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$5.78 million) (Under the 1992 Protocol, the limit was 3 million SDR (US$3.8 million)
- For a ship 5,000 to 140,000 gross tonnage: liability is limited to 4.51 million SDR (US$5.78 million) plus 631 SDR (US$807) for each additional gross tonne over 5,000. (Under the 1992 Protocol, the limit was 3 million SDR (US$3.8 million) plus 420 SDR (US$537.6) for each additional gross tonne)
- For a ship over 140,000 gross tonnage: liability is limited to 89.77 million SDR (US$115 million) (Under the 1992 Protocol, the limit was 59.7 million SDR (US$76.5 million)

  1.  Explain P&I clubs, reason for such clubs, their liabilities and fund raising
Ans; protection relates to the liabilities incurred by the employment of the ship as a ship, where as Indemnity is concerned with the liabilities incurred by the employment of ship as a  carrier of cargo.
P&I clubs are association of the shipowners to provide covers for the items of liability, which are not covered under hull and machinery insurance, such clubs operate on no profit no loss basis. Each shipowners contribution is decided on the basis of the tonnage, type of ships, and experience of the claims.
Shipowners take P&I insurance cover in respect of third party liability and expenses arising from owing ships or operating ships as principals.

Liabilities which P&I clubs covers

  • Crew-liability for injury, illness, death, medical expenses, repatriation under such circumstances, funeral, and repatriation of substitute crew member under such circumstances
  • Stevedores- loss of life, injury,
  • Passengers, injury ,loss of life and illness
  • personnel effects
  • diversion expenses: to land sick crew, stowaway
  • life salvage: award to person who has saved life
  • one fourth collision liability: hull policy usually covers 3/4th collision liability
  • oil pollution: Standard cover: actual or threatened escape or to prevent escape or expenses borne in all such cases are covered in standard policy
       USA cover: under OPA act 1990 a separate cover is required, which requires additional premiums to be paid. Issuance of COFR( certificate of financial responsibilities)
Single hull tanker 3000 gt and above or less with double side only or double bottom only
3000USD / GT

Double hull  tanker 3000GT or above or less
1900USD / GT

Any other vessel other than a tanker
950 USD/GT

  • wreck liabilities: removal , destruction, lightening or marking of the wreck
  • cargo liabilities; for loss, shortage, damage or delay
  • cargo’s proportion of general average
  • fines
  • legal costs
  • besides above P&I clubs also give guaranty to port authorities to prevent detention of the ships for settlement of full pending cases of liability against the ships.
  • Omnibus cover

policy is for one year starting noon GMT on 20th FEBRUARY
collection of premium:
  • estimated total calls ETC or advance calls; whole premium of the year collected in advance in quarterly installments
  • supplementary calls: for claims heavier than expected, a call for supplementary premium to balance the books
  • overspill calls: one or more overspill call in respect of overspill claim.

Disbursement of claims

  • the first USD 5 million of a claim are covered by the member's club - known as the club's own retention
·         the next USD 25 million (figure is reviewed annually) are covered by the Pool to which all the clubs in the International Group of P&I Associations ("the Group") contribute, according to an agreed formula
·         claims in excess of USD 30 million are compensated under the Group market reinsurance arrangements. The total commercial market reinsurance limit is - currently - at USD 2000 million.
·         cover in excess of USD 2000 million - "the overspill cover", This cover has been fixed at 2,5 % of the 1976 Limitation Convention's Property Fund, or approximately USD 2400 million on top of existing market reinsurances. This risk is shared mutually by the Pool members.
The system for reimbursement of oil pollution claims has the same bottom features, but the policy is limited at USD 1,000 million, with no overspill. 

  1. electrical requirement during dry- dock

Ans: check voltage, phase sequence, and frequency of supply, check KW hour meter reading if any prior dry-docking, If the frequency offered is lesser than the ships rated, then the machines are to be run under load condition to prevent over speeding of the rotors and prevent damage to the bearings. shore connection terminal box, if not present then connect to most convenient place such as emergency switch board or main switch board

  1. ISM code NC,M-NC observation etc

Ans: Non conformity: an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the non fulfillment of a specified requirement.
Major Non conformity: mans an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety of the personnels or to the ship or a serious risk to the environment that requires an immediate corrective action and includes lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of this code.
Observation: means a statement of fact made during a safety management audit and substantiated by the objective evidence
Objective evidence; means qualitative or quantitative information, records of statements of facts, pertaining to the safety or to the existence and implementation of the safety management system element, which is based on observation, measurement or test , which can be verified.
  1. Explain FOB, CIF
Free on board; under free on board contract the seller undertakes to deliver the goods over the ships rails at which point the risks passes from the seller to the buyer, the sellers responsibility is to pay all expenses till this point the buyer is responsible for freight and subsequent charges. The buyer is responsible for the insurance from the time he assumes the risk that is once the good passes the ships rail. In short till the goods passes the rail they are at the risk of the seller and there after remains the risk of the buyer.

Cost , insurance and freight; on CIF sales bases the seller is responsible for insurance from his own premises to that of the buyer at the destination. The policy is timely to the warehouse to warehouse. The policy is taken out in sellers name and buyer will negotiate any claim. Same policy protects the interests of both seller and buyer. The seller must provide the buyer a clean bill of lading

  1. explain high velocity vent valve(HVVV), refer macgeaorge

  1. differentiate between CAS and CAP
Ans: Condition Assessment Program(CAP) is a specialized survey program which offers owners a detailed assessment of a ship's actual condition, based on strength evaluation, and fatigue strength analysis as well as a detailed on site systematic inspection of the hull, machinery and cargo systems. 
The CAP applies, in principle, to oil tankers and chemical carriers, though other types of ships may be covered, provided that the CAP is properly modified.
CAP consists of two major parts
a)    CAP-HULL (Condition Assessment for Hull Structures)
b)      CAP-MACHINERY/CARGO SYSTEM (Condition Assessment for Machinery and Cargo Systems)
The results of condition assessment are clearly identified using a rating system.
After the completion of the CAP, the certificate of CAP indicating the ship's comprehensive rating Detailed assessment results and the relevant records shown below are attached to the certificate of CAP. It is carried out by the classification society on the request of shipowner.

Condition assessment scheme

After disaster of prestige , IMO adopted the amendments to the regulation 13G or 20 in 2006 edition of MARPOL 73/78 annex 1, for further acceleration of the phase out timetable for single hull oil tankers and consequentially adopted the amendments to Condition Assessment Scheme (CAS). The amendments to these regulations has entered into force on 5APRIL 2005.

CAS application

Category 1 tankers: oil tanker of 20,000 tons dead weight and above, carrying crude oil , fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, or lubricating oil as cargo,
: 30,000 deadweight and above carrying oil other than above, which does not comply with the requirements of the definition of a new tanker.
Category 2 tankers: oil tanker of 20,000 deadweight and above carrying crude oil, fuel oil, heavy diesel oil, or lubricating oil as cargo and 30,000 deadweight and above carrying oil other than above. Which complies with the requirement of the definition of a new tanker.
Category 3 tankers: oil tanker of deadweight 5,000 and above but less than as specified in category 1&2 tankers.
Delivered on 5April 1982 or earlier shall be phased out on 5 april 2005 and are not applicable for compliance with CAS.
The full timetable for the phasing out of single-hull tankers is as follows:
Category of oil tanker
Date or year
Category 1
5 April 2005 for ships delivered on 5 April 1982 or earlier
2005 for ships delivered after 5 April 1982
Category 2 and
Category 3
5 April 2005 for ships delivered on 5 April 1977 or earlier
2005 for ships delivered after 5 April 1977 but before 1 January 1978
2006 for ships delivered in 1978 and 1979
2007 for ships delivered in 1980 and 1981
2008 for ships delivered in 1982
2009 for ships delivered in 1983
2010 for ships delivered in 1984 or later


The first CAS survey will be carried out concurrent with the first intermediate or renewal survey
-          after 5 April 2005
-          or after the date when  ship reaches 15 yrs of age
which ever occurs later.
CAS is intended to improve the requirements of the Enhanced Survey Programme (ESP) during survey of oil tankers, therefore CAS shall apply to survey of hull structure in the way of cargo tanks , pump room, cofferdam, pipe tunnel, void spaces with in the cargo area and all ballast tanks.
CAS shall not apply to survey of machinery, equipment, fire extinction and fitting
  1. close up survey; the requirements of ESP  at special survey no. 3 has been revised and is same as of CAS
            Close up survey requirement
            All web frame rings in ballast tanks and cargo wing tanks
            A minimum of 30% of all web frame rings in each remaining cargo wing tank
            All transverse bulkheads in cargo and ballast tanks
            A minimum of 30% of deck and bottom transverses including adjacent structural                                                                                                                    members as considered necessary by the attending surveyor

  1. thickness measurements; the extent of thickness measurement in CAS is enhanced than those of special survey.
a)      each deck plate within cargo area.
b)      3 transverse sections( 2 tranverse section for SS 3)
c)      each bottom plate
  1. measurement of structural members subject to close up survey, for general assessment and corrosion recording patern.
  2. suspected areas
  3. selected ind and water strakes outside the cargo area
  4. internal structures in the fore and aft peak tanks
  5. all exposed main deck plate outside the cargo area and all exposed first tier superstructures deck plates.

CAS survey record and documentation

Upon completion of survey, (the survey shall not be considered complete until all the recommendations / COC of hull structures are have been rectified to the satisfaction of the surveyor.), surveyor will send a report to the head office of class and will issue an interim statement of compliance for a period not exceeding 5 months.

The class HO then will draft a final report and submit this report to the administration not later than 3 months of completion of survey.
The administration upon verifying and reviewing CAS final report shall issue a statement of compliance and will forward the results of the CAS final report to the IMO. The validity of the statement of compliance shall not be more than 5yrs and 6 months from the date of completion of survey.
In case the SOC issued upon the first CAS survey is valid beyond 2010 than ship may be considered under compliance, under reg13G(7). But under reg 13G(8) administrations party to convention may deny the entry of such ships beyond 2010.
 After 15 years if a ship is not carrying SOC it shall be out of service.

Enhanced programme survey.
Enhanced survey programme for bulk carriers was introduced in 1993 as a voluntary measure through IMO res. A744(18).
ESP became mandatory under international law for bulk carriers under SOLAS Ch XII (additional safety measures for bulk carriers), which entered into force on 1 july 1999 and for bulk carriers and tanker under SOLAS Ch XI-1 reg 2 (special measures to enhance maritime safety).
As per MARPOL annex I reg 13G  all crude oil carriers of 20,000 dwt and above and all product carriers of 30,000 Dwt and above will be subjected to ESP
As per the guidelines on the enhanced programme of inpection during safety of bulk carriers and oil tankers, there are two annexes;
Annex A guidelines on the enhanced programme of inspections during surveys of bulk carriers.
In respect of bulk carriers the surveys should be applied to surveys of hull structure and piping system in the way of cargo holds, cofferdam, pipe tunnel, voids spaces with in the cargo areas and all ballast tanks. Extent of examination, thickness measurements and tank testing the survey should be extended when substantial corrosion or structural defects are found and include additional close up survey when necessary.

Annex B guidelines on enhanced programme of inspections during surveys of oil tankers
In respect of oil tankers should apply to the surveys of hull structure and piping systems in the way of cargo tanks, pump room , cofferdams, pipe tunnel , void spaces within the cargo area and all ballast tanks

  1. Explain anti fouling systems
(Adoption: 5 October 2001; Entry into force: The convention will enter into force 12 months after 25 States representing 25% of the world's merchant shipping tonnage have ratified it.)
Anti fouling systems will prohibit the use of the harmful organotins in antifouling paints used on the ships and will establish a mechanism to prevent the potential use of other harmful substances in the antifouling systems.
Shall be applicable to the ships  400GT and above engaged in international voyages will undergo an initial survey and shall be issued a international  anti- fouling systems certificate  for the first time and a survey when the antifouling systems are changed or replaced.
Ships of 24m length but less than 400GT shall be required to carry a declaration on anti fouling systems signed by the owner accompanied by the paint receipt.

  1. Explain world scale
Ans: World scale is the code name for  New World Wide Tanker Nominal Freight Scale;
This system brings out annually revised scales of freights based on the cost of operating a standard tanker to and from some known ports.
Worldscale is a schedule of nominal freight rates intended to be used as a standard of reference to compare rates for all voyages and market levels. The oil maritime transportation industry uses the WORLDSCALE rates to express the market level in terms of percentage of the WORLDSCALE nominal freight rate.
The actual rate negotiated between shipper and shipowner will be expressed as a percentage of the world scale rate, depending on the market conditions. So Worldscale 100 means exact rate, whereas Worldscale 120 expresses a rate equal to 120% of Worldscale for that particular route, and Worldscale 60 means a rate of 60% Worldscale.
Worldscale is based on an average vessel with average costs earning an average rate. It works on the basis that, using the realistic costs of operating an imaginary standard tanker of “average” size on an “average” 15,000- mile round voyage, the break-even freight rate for that ship on that route can be calculated. This “Worldscale Flat” rate is calculated in US dollars per metric ton of cargo carried on a standard loaded voyage between a loading port and a discharge port with a ballasted return voyage. The standard vessel is of 75,000 dwt with an average service speed of 14.5 knots and consumption of 55 m.t. of 380 CSt fuel per day while steaming, plus 100m.t. per round voyage for other purposes and an additional 5 m.t. in each port in the voyage. Port time allowed is 4 days for the voyage. The fixed hire element (on the assumption that the ship is time-chartered) is $12,000 per day. Bunker prices are assessed annually by the Worldscale Associations and are based, as are port charges, on the previous year’s average. Average exchange rates for the previous September are used. The total of the voyage costs divided  by the cargo tonnage will give the Worldscale Flat rate, or “W100” for that voyage.
It is customary in the tanker trades to express market freight levels as a percentage of the published Worldscale rates, a method known as “points of scale”. Thus “Worldscale 100” or “W100” means 100 points of 100% of the published rate - in other words, the published rate itself, or “Worldscale flat”. “Worldscale 243” means 243 points or 243 per cent of the published rate and “Worldscale 31.5” means 31.5 points or 31.5% of the published rate.
  • Economies of scale dictate that, in order to break even on a voyage, a large tanker carrying a large quantity of oil will require a lower freight rate per tonne than a smaller tanker lifting a smaller cargo. A VLCC might therefore be quoted at W41 while a 50,000-tonner may require well over W100 or even more than W200.

  1. CESSER clause explain
Ans; it is in voyage charter, Where the charterers are not the owners of the goods but is acting only as an agent or broker for the loading of another party’s goods, he will probably be anxious to ensure that his liability for the cargo ceases once it is loaded. This is usually expressed in a Cesser Clause stating that “...charterers’ liability will cease on shipment of cargo and payment of freight, deadfreight and demurrage”, i.e. sums incurred at the loading port. The shipowner, however, will not want to find himself without a remedy for any breach of contract or damage done to his vessel after the charterer’s liability has ceased, and will want legal recourse against another party, who will usually be the receiver of the goods. Therefore, if a Cesser Clause is incorporated in the charter party, a Lien Clause will also be included giving the owners the right to retain possession of the goods at the discharge port until outstanding debts are paid. The two clauses are often combined in a Cesser and Lien Clause. The relief given to the charterers from their
obligations only operates to the extent that outstanding sums can be recovered at the discharge port. The owners must proceed against the receiver first, but the charterers will remain liable for sums which cannot be recovered from the receiver.
  1. Explain bill of lading in detail
6.2    Ans; Bill of Lading (B/L)
The bill of lading is the declaration of the master of the vessel by which he acknowledges that he received the goods on board of his ship and assures that he will carry the goods to the place of destination for delivery, in the same condition as he received them, against handing of the original bill of lading.
The bill of lading (B/L) serves as:
  1. A receipt of the goods by the shipowner acknowledging that the goods of the stated species, quantity and condition, are shipped to a stated destination in a certain ship, or at least received in custody of the shipowner for the purpose of shipment;
  2. A memorandum of the contract of carriage, by which the master agrees to transport the goods to their destination; all terms of the contract which was in fact concluded prior to the signing of the bill of lading are repeated on the back of this document;
  3. A document of title to the goods enabling the consignee to dispose of the goods by endorsement and delivery of the bill of lading.
.  MATE”S RECIEPT Chief officer (C/O) compares ship’s tally or intaken cargo tonnage with details on Shipping Note and issues a Mate’s Receipt (M/R) from ship’s triplicate book. M/R contains accurate and truthful details of quantity and condition of goods, including references to any shortage, damage, etc. C/O gives at least one copy to shipper’s representative but retains one copy in book. Shipper obtains a full set of blank B/Ls from carrier, types in details of received cargo exactly as stated on M/R given by ship. Shipper sends full set of original B/Ls to port agent for signing by master or agent (with written authority of master). Person signing B/Ls carefully checks that typed details correspond to those in ship’s copy of M/R, and signs all original B/Ls in set. Full set of signed original B/Ls is handed to shipper. Other signed copies (marked COPY - NON-NEGOTIABLE) are also issued for office/filing purposes. Ship sails from loading port. During voyage shipper may sell goods to another party by endorsement and transfer of the full set of B/Ls. This may happen several times. Ship arrives at discharge port. Last buyer of goods in chain (who is now consignee) or his receiver proves his identity to port agent and presents one original B/L, endorsed to him. Pays freight and any demurrage owing. Agent stamps B/L ‘accomplished’ and issues Delivery Order to consignee to enable him to collect his goods. Consignee or receiver presents Delivery Order to ship, bills of lading are made up of four specimens;
1.       one for the shipper,
2.       one for the consignee of the goods,
3.       one for the master,
4.       one for the owner of the vessel.
Only these three or two specimens are marked with the statement "original", and all the other specimens - the ones for the master, the owner of the vessel, the consignee, and other specimens for other purposes - are marked with the statement "copy not negotiable". Sometimes a hundred "copies not negotiable" exist, and none of them gives the right to receive the goods.
The three or two originals, handed over to the shipper, is called "a full set of bills of lading". When a person has a full set of bills of lading, it is impossible that another person would receive the goods. The bill of lading always mentions the number of originals.
The B/L must indicate that the goods have been loaded on board or shipped on a named vessel, and it must be signed or authenticated by the carrier or the master, or the agent on behalf of the carrier or the master. The signature or authentication must be identified as carrier or master, and in the case of agent signing or authenticating, the name and capacity of the carrier or the master on whose behalf such agent signs or authenticates must be indicated.
A set contains at least two originals. In practice, a set of three originals is the most common. The number of original bills of lading (Bs/L) may be expressed as 3/3 (read as 'three of three') or 2/2 (read as 'two of two'). In the sample L/C, it the L/C stipulates "Full set 3/3... The purpose of issuing more than one original is to ensure that the port of destination will receive the original when dispatched separately. The original Bs/L are proof of ownership of goods, one of which must be surrendered to the carrier at destination, duly endorsed by the title holder in the goods in exchange for the goods or the delivery order. When one of the originals being surrendered to the carrier, the others become invalid.
The non-negotiable copy of B/L simply means the unsigned copy of the B/L, which is for information purposes.

A clean bill of lading is a bill of lading bearing no superimposed clauses stating a defective condition or shortage of the goods. It states that the goods have been received “in apparent good order and condition...”, without further remarks as to their condition.
  • A dirty bill of lading, also known as a “claused” or “foul” bill, is one claused with remarks such as “torn bags”, “rusty drums”, “three (3) more c/s in dispute - if on board to be delivered”, etc.
  1. discuss COLREG and reg 22 and 23
Ans: Part C Lights and Shapes (Rules 20-31)

Rule 20 states rules concerning lights apply from sunset to sunrise.Rule 21 gives definitions.

Rule 22 covers visibility of lights - indicating that lights should be visible at minimum ranges (in nautical miles) determined according to the type of vessel.

Rule 23 covers lights to be carried by power-driven vessels underway.

Rule 24 covers lights for vessels towing and pushing.

Rule 25 covers light requirements for sailing vessels underway and vessels under oars.

Rule 26 covers light requirements for fishing vessels.

Rule 27 covers light requirements for vessels not under command or restricted in their ability to manoeuvre.

Rule 28 covers light requirements for vessels constrained by their draught.

Rule 29 covers light requirements for pilot vessels.

Rule 30 covers light requirements for vessels anchored and aground.Rule 31 covers light requirements for seaplanes

Part D - Sound and Light Signals (Rules 32-37)

Rule 32 gives definitions of whistle, short blast, and prolonged blast.

Rule 33 says vessels 12 metres or more in length should carry a whistle and a bell and vessels 100 metres or more in length should carry in addition a gong.

Rule 34 covers manoeuvring and warning signals, using whistle or lights.

Rule 35 covers sound signals to be used in restricted visibility.

Rule 36 covers signals to be used to attract attention.

Rule 37 covers distress signals.

  1. what is AFRA and AFRA max
AFRA- average freight rate assessment The London tanker brokers panel determine market rates under a freight billing system called AFRA.
They are unique in being the only assessment of their kind to be recognized by taxation authorities, as an acceptable method of charging freights between affiliated company of multinational groups. AFRA results are used by oil traders and govt agencies, to access the freight element in various types of oil sale agreement. AFRA results are published on the first business day of each month and cover five dead weight group.
Medium range- 25000-49999 DWT
Large range  1- 500000-79999 DWT
Large range 2- 80000-159999 DWT
VLCC- 160000- 319999 DWT
ULCC- 3200000-549999 DWT
 In each of the five groups tonnage is divided into three categories, long term charter, short term charter, single voyage charter, each month AFRA subscribers receive the AFRA expressed in new Worldscale points.
Panamax tankers are vessels in the range 50,000-74,999 dwt.
Aframax tankers are vessels large enough to carry “Aframax”-size cargoes of between 80,000 tonnes and 119,000 tonnes. The average size of Aframax cargoes varies from one world region to another, resulting in different tanker market practitioners quoting different sizes for an “Aframax” tanker4 Vessels in this category of less than 100,000 dwt are divided into “dirty” and “clean” groups, “dirty” vessels carrying “black” cargoes such as crude oil, heavy fuel oils, asphalt, etc. and clean vessels carrying refined
“white” products.
A Suezmax tanker is a vessel of such a size (around 150,000-200,000 dwt, depending on dimensions and draught) that she can sail through the Suez Canal when fully loaded. Some brokers categorise “Suezmax” tankers as vessels in the range 120,000-199,999 dwt.

  1. discuss wreck and salvage convention
SALVAGE convention
International convention on salvage 1989 ; it has 34 articles included in  five chapters.
Ch 1 deals with general provisions – definitions etc.
Ch 2 deals with the salvage performance such as duties of salvor, owner and the master,
Ch 3 deals with rights of salvor
Article 13 deals with criterion for fixing the reward
Article 14 deals with the special compensation clause- SCOPIC
Chapter 4 deals with claims and actions
Ch 5 deals with final clauses.
  1. Exhaust boiler safety valve settings
  2. What things to check in dry-dock

 Ans;Items to be checked before dry-docking

1.  check the documentations;
  • Plans- General arrangement, Docking plan, Shell expansion plan
  • Surveys and certifications due/ renewal
  • Maintenance schedules, spares and stores R.O. B and requirement
  • Measuring instruments,
  • Consumption of stern tube lube oil , send samples for analyses
  • M/E crankshaft deflection and record
  • Sound all the engine room DB tanks

Items to be checked during docking

  • shore connection terminal box, phase sequence indicator, voltage and frequency of shore supply, KW hr meter on the shore side if any.
  • maintain vessels trim as required by the dry dock authorities
  • ensure the FFA equipments such as fire plan are in order, availability of international shore connection
  • check with ,master when to shut down the M/E , A/E’s and Sea water pumps,
  • boiler dump condenser to be isolated after stopping the boiler
  • sewage discharge connection to be made ready for discharge ashore or to be collected in tanks
  • isolate the tern tube lube oil head tank while the water being pumped out.
  • ensure that all DB tanks bottom drain pugs are fitted back and cemented

Items to be checked during undocking

  • leakages from the sea water pipe lines and ship side valves etc.
  • ensure that oil is there in stern tube head tank and correct tank in use.
  • Remove the shore connections and check the KW hr meter reading
  • Check the contents of the DB tanks so that trim is maintained as per dry-dock authorities requirement.
  1. Ballast water management why and how
Ans; International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments
Adoption: 13 February 2004
Entry into force: 12 months after ratification by 30 States, representing 35 per cent of world merchant shipping tonnage.,
 Under article 2 ;to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments.
Reception facilities
Under Article 5 Sediment Reception Facilities Parties undertake to ensure that ports and terminals where cleaning or repair of ballast tanks occurs,

Survey, certification and inspection
Ships are required to be surveyed and certified (Article 7 Survey and certification) and may be inspected by port State control officers (Article 9 Inspection of Ships) who can verify that the ship has a valid certificate; inspect the Ballast Water Record Book; and/or sample the ballast water. If there are concerns, then a detailed inspection may be carried out and "the Party carrying out the inspection shall take such steps as will ensure that the ship shall not discharge Ballast Water until it can do so without presenting a threat of harm to the environment, human health, property or resources."

Annex - Section B Management and Control Requirements for Ships
Ships are required to have on board and implement a Ballast Water Management Plan approved by the Administration (Regulation B-1)

Ships must have a Ballast Water Record Book (Regulation B-2) to record when ballast water is taken on board; circulated or treated for Ballast Water Management purposes; and discharged into the sea. It should also record when Ballast Water is discharged to a reception facility and accidental or other exceptional discharges of Ballast Water
Annex - Section D Standards for Ballast Water Management
Regulation D-1 Ballast Water Exchange Standard - Ships performing Ballast Water exchange shall do so with an efficiency of 95 per cent volumetric exchange of Ballast Water. For ships exchanging ballast water by the pumping-through method, pumping through three times the volume of each ballast water tank shall be considered to meet the standard described. Pumping through less than three times the volume may be accepted provided the ship can demonstrate that at least 95 percent volumetric exchange is met
The sequential flow-through and dilution methods of ballast water exchange will be accepted.  When flow-through or dilution is used, at least three times the tanks volume should be pumped.  Ballast water exchange should be carried out with an efficiency of at least 95% volumetric exchange.
D1 = Ballast Water Exchange (95% volumetric exchange) or pumping through three time the volume of each tank.
D2 = Ballast Water Treatment systems approved by the Administration which treat ballast water to an efficacy of:

• not more than 10 viable organisms per m3 >50 micrometers in minimum dimension, and

• not more than 10 viable organisms per millilitre < 50 micrometers in minimum dimension and >10 micrometers in minimum dimension.

Indicator Microbe concentrations shall not exceed: a) toxicogenic vibrio cholerae: 1 colony forming unit (cfu) per 100 millilitre or 1 cfu per gram of zooplankton samples; b) Escherichia coli: 250 cfu per 100 millilitre c) Intestinal Enterococci: 100 cfu per 100 millilitre
Construction Date (CD) = keel laying date; 50 tons or 1% of structural material – whichever is less; or major conversion.
Major Conversion = change of ballast capacity of 15%; change of ship type; projected life is extended by 10 years; or ballast system modification except for replacement-in-kind or modifications needed to meet ballast water exchange
Ballast Water Exchange is to take place as follows:  regulation B4

1) at least 200 nm from the nearest land and in 200 m water depth;

2) at least 50 nm from the nearest land and in 200 m water depth; or

3) in the event throughout the intended route the sea area does not afford the above characteristics, in a sea area designated by the port State.

All ships > 400gt are to be surveyed (initial, annual intermediate, and renewal) and certificated (not exceeding 5 years).

  1. Differentiate between bareboat and voyage, time charter
Ans; voyage charter
is a contract for the carriage by a named vessel of a specified quantity of cargo between named ports or places. The charterer, who may be the cargo owner or may be chartering for the account of another party such as the shipper or the receiver, agrees to provide for loading, within the agreed period of time, the agreed quantity of the agreed commodity, to pay the agreed amount of freight, and to take delivery of the cargo at the destination place. In effect the charterers hire the cargo capacity of the vessel, and not the entire vessel, and to this extent a voyage. The shipowner must provide the master and crew, act as carrier and pay all running and voyage costs, unless the charter party specifically provides otherwise.
Freight is in proportion to the volume of the cargo

time charter -
- is a contract for the hire of a named vessel for a specified period of time. The shipowner is responsible for vessel’s running expenses, i.e. manning, repairs and maintenance, stores, master’s and crew’s wages, hull and machinery insurance, etc. He operates the vessel technically, but not commercially. The owners bear no cargo-handling expenses and do not normally appoint stevedores Stevedoring damage notification forms, and log extracts (or “abstracts”) will usually be required to be sent to the charterers.
an extra payment to be made by the charterers each time the ship’s crew sweep and/or wash down the holds of a dry cargo ship. Time charterers are normally allowed to fly their own house flag and, at their own expense, paint their own colours on the funnel and/or sides.

bareboat charter (sometimes called a charter by demise or demise charter
is a contract for the hire of a vessel for an agreed period during which the charterers acquire most of the rights of the owners, is used by owners such as banks and finance houses who are not prepared to operate or manage ships themselves. a purchase option after expiry of the charter or during the hire period. (Hire payments may include instalments of the purchase price, and transfer of ownership may follow the final instalment. Many permutations are possible.) In essence the vessel owners put the vessel (without any crew) at the complete disposal of the charterers and pay the capital costs, but (usually) no other costs. The charterers have commercial and technical responsibility for the vessel, and pay all costs except capital costs.

  1. DOC is issued to whom?
Ans: Document of Compliance is issued to the shipping company upon when the shipping company demonstrates the plan to implement safety management system, meting the full requirement of this code with the period of validity of interim DOC

  1. Discuss LOF
Ans; The only international standard form of salvage agreement in use is Lloyds Standard Form of Salvage Agreement or Lloyds Open Form (LOF). A form of contract which was easily understood and known to be fair to salvors, seafarers owners and underwriters alike;
a contract which can be agreed without hesitation or negotiation thereby
enabling necessary salvage work to start immediately;
a contract with an administrative system and rules of conduct under which the
assessment of the salvage award and all disputes could safely be left to be
resolved after a successful operation had been completed;

The 1980 version (LOF 80) provided that contractors could limit their liability
in accordance with the 1976 Limitation Convention, notwithstanding that, at
that time, the Convention did not then have the force of law.  LOF 80 also broke, for the first time, the centuries old salvage principal of ‘no cure no pay’ by providing that if the salvage services involved a laden tanker, the salvor, even if unsuccessful, would at least recover the very minimum of his expenses plus an uplift of 15%. This was done to encourage salvors to run to the assistance of seriously damaged tankers which were threatening damage to the environment.

LOF90 incorporated the Salvage Convention which included the very important new provision for Special Compensation under Article 14.  But difficulties of interpreting the precise meaning of Article 14 of the Convention was defeating its very purpose, namely to encourage salvors to proceed to the assistance of seriously damaged ships

To correct the situation, new concept, the SCOPIC Clause (Special Compensation P&I Clause), which was specifically designed to replace the Article 14 provision of the Salvage Convention and make the assessment of the amount due to the contractor that
much easier. LOF2000 specifically made provision for the use of the SCOPIC clause

  1. What are critical machinery and critical operations
Ans; critical machineries are those machineries sudden failure of which may result in hazardous situation- such as M/E, A/E. steering gear, IOPP euipment, LSA & FFA equipments, IG system anchoring and mooring equipment, cargo handling equipments,
Critical operations are those operations, which if not followed correctly may lead to hazardous situation or may pose a threat to the environment. such as manoeuvring or bunkering.
Critical operation would include but not ltd to
-navigation in res visibility
-nav in high desity traffic
-nav in res/narrow area
-heavy weather operation
-handling of haz cargo and noxious liquid  substances
-          bkrg and oil transfer operation at sea
-          cargo operations on gas and oil / chemical tankers

  1. What are dynamic elements of ISM
Ans; dynamic elements of ISM code are as follows, dynamic elements are designed to support continuous improvement of SMS
    1. Internal audit and SMS review by the company
    2. reporting of non conformities, accidents, near misses, and hazardous situations
    3. masters review and reporting of deficiencies
    4. identification of training needs and provision of same.

  1. Test ships safety- tankers-hull related- cargo safety
  2. Damaged stability criterion-product tanker – chemical tanker- bulk carrier
  3. For gas carrier any convention

  1. P&I club who pay the premium
Ans; Shipowners pay the P&I club premium.
  1. Suppose shipowner takes the policy from the P&I now the vessel is sold to another person will policy get transferred,
Ans: NO the policy will not gets transferred, because new owner may not be a member of the same club, While other insurance premiums are fixed on the basis of probabilities - or actuary calculations, P&I insurance premiums are reviewed annually on a per ship and/or fleet basis. Several factors are taken into account in the process, most importantly the claims record of the vessel, specifically the average loss-ratio (claims as percentage of premium) over the previous 5 years.

  1. a major maintenance is carried out in engine room , after starting normally another accident take place- found from the incident , what could be the reason what will you do regarding that.
Ans;  Generally if a major maintenance is carried out and test run is normal , and after that if any accident takes place the following could be the reasons
    1. human error, lack of knowledge and experience, senior engineers irresponsible.
    2. material failure, due to poor quality or substandard spare parts
    3. failure of lubrication, again it’s the coz of human error, either insufficient lube oil  in the system or passages are not clear.
    4. Excessive thermal stress or mechanical stress due to over tightening of components, again it leads to human error, either insufficient cooling – cooling medium valves shut, or over or under tightening of the component, correct tightening methods and procedures not followed.

  1. CLC conventions what are the limits what are the amendments, has this convention signed by India.

Ans; YES, ratified on 19.6.75 , CLC 69, and CLC protocol 1976
Limits in 1969-133 SDR /ton , with max limit of 14 million SDR

Limits as per 1992 protocol

Less than 5000GT , 3million SDR
5000GT to 140,000 GT , 3 million SDR+ 420 SDR per ton
over 140,000 GT , 59.7 million SDR
limits as per 2000 amendments
less than 5000GT, 4.51 million SDR
5000 to 140,000GT 4.51 million SDR+ 631 SDR per ton
over 140,000 GT 89.77 million SDR

  1. What is FUND convention limit, who contribute to fund, has India ratified it, what is supplementary fund, who contribute to supplementary fund, what is SDR
Ans; YES India has ratified , act16.10.78, FUND, 1971 and protocol FUND 1976, 1992 protocol FUND ratification is under consideration, All persons or companies importing more than 150000 tonnes of oil per year shall make contribution to the fund.
In May 2003, a Diplomatic Conference adopted the 2003 Protocol on the Establishment of a Supplementary Fund for Oil Pollution Damage. The Protocol establishes an International Oil Pollution Compensation Supplementary Fund, the object of which is to provide an additional, third tier of compensation for oil pollution damage.

the total amount of compensation payable for any one incident will be limited to a combined total of 750 million Special Drawing Rights (SDR) (just over US$1,000 million), including the amount of compensation paid under the existing CLC/Fund Conventions
Special drawing rights is the new unit of account, based on the special drawing rights as used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF)

  1. What is the purpose of MS?
Ans; to provide for the registration of Indian ships and to consolidate the law relating to merchant shipping
An act to foster the development and ensure the efficient maintenance of an Indian mercantile marine in a manner best suited to serve the national interests and for that purpose to establish national shipping board.
  1. Junior for training on board – DMET, and workshop, what will be your criterion for training
  2. STCW section in MS act
  3. UK COC want to sail in Indian ship – which section of MS act allows
Ans: 86.Recognition of certificates of competency or service granted in other countries.- (1) If provision is made by the law in force in any country other than India for the grant of certificates of competency or service similar to those referred to in this Act, and the Central Government is satisfied-
(a) that the conditions under which any such certificates are granted in that country require standards of competency or service not lower than those required for the grant under this Act of corresponding certificates; and
(b) that certificates granted under this Act are accepted in that country in lieu of the corresponding certificates granted under the laws of that country;
the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare that any certificate of competency or service granted under the laws in force in that country and specified in that notification shall for the purposes of this Act be recognised as equivalent to the corresponding certificate of competency or service granted under this Act and specified in the notification.
(2) Whenever the provisions of this Act require that a person employed in any capacity on board any ship shall be the holder of a specified certificate of competency or service granted under this Act, any person employed in that capacity shall, if he is the holder of a certificate recognised under sub-section (1) as equivalent to the first-mentioned certificate or to a certificate of higher grade granted under this Act, and still in force, be deemed to be duly certificate under this Act.

  1. As C/E what will you do when going to SECA area, what will you do with cylinder oil
Ans: in SECA area’s to meet the SOX emission requirement of 6 g / kw hr under annex VI, provision is made to burn fuel having low sulphur content of 1.5%. since the sulphur is reduced therefore the TBN should also  be reduced to counter less generated acidic effect, therefore cylinder oil of low TBN should be used in the main propulsion engines. This can be  also be achieved by intelligent cylinder lubrication.
  1. As C/E what will you do with respect to annex VI – Nox technical file if original spare is not there what will you do.
Ans; The engine’s Technical File identifies the components, settings and operating values that influences the exhaust emissions and these must be checked to ensure compliance during surveys and inspections.
To satisfy the requirements of this method the following must be available:
    • Technical File including the onboard verification procedure.
    • Record book of engine parameters for recording all of the changes made relative to an engine’s components and settings. Also to include technical documentation in case of modification of any of the engine’s designated components
    • Nox influencing components- fuel injector nozzle, fuel pump, fuel injection pressure,  liner, piston , valve cams, valve timings, fuel timings, con rod piston rod shims, cylinder heads and gasket.
Changing spares must be entered in the NOX tech file,
If the original spares as per the Nox tech file code are not on board then, make a requisition on urgent basis, inform the company about the same, if possible try to overhaul the same component, such as fuel injectors, don’t change any parts with those which are not in compliance with the Nox tech file.
In case it is very much urgent to renew such a part then keep a close monitoring of the engine parameters and compare them with the previous record, Engine parameter record book., while entering port limits reduce the load on the engine so that the exhaust temperature are reduced and hence NOX.

  1. What are the future amendments of MARPOL
Ans: 1 August 2007
March 2006 amendments to MARPOL
MARPOL regulation on oil fuel tank protection
The amendment to the revised MARPOL Annex I (which was adopted in October 2004 with entry into force set for 1 January 2007) includes a new regulation 12A on oil fuel tank protection. The regulation is intended to apply to all ships delivered on or after 1 August 2010 with an aggregate oil fuel capacity of 600m3 and above. It includes requirements for the protected location of the fuel tanks and performance standards for accidental oil fuel outflow. A maximum capacity limit of 2,500m3 per oil fuel tank is included in the regulation, which also requires Administrations to consider general safety aspects, including the need for maintenance and inspection of wing and double-bottom tanks or spaces, when approving the design and construction of ships in accordance with the regulation. Consequential amendments to the IOPP Certificate were also adopted.

The MEPC also agreed to include appropriate text referring to the new regulation in the amendments to the Guidelines for the application of the revised MARPOL Annex I requirements to FPSOs and FSUs and approved a Unified Interpretation on the application of the regulation to column-stabilized MODUs.
Definition of heavy grade oil
A further amendment to the revised MARPOL Annex I relates to the definition of "heavy grade oil" in regulation 21 on Prevention of oil pollution from oil tankers carrying heavy grade oil as cargo, replacing the words "fuel oils" with "oils, other than crude oils", thereby broadening the scope of the regulation.
MARPOL Annex IV amendments
The amendment to MARPOL Annex IV Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships adds a new regulation 13 on Port State control on operational requirements. The regulation states that a ship, when in a port or an offshore terminal of another Party, is subject to inspection by officers duly authorized by such Party concerning operational requirements under the Annex, where there are clear grounds for believing that the master or crew are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures relating to the prevention of pollution by sewage.
Amendments to BCH Code
Amendments to the Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships Carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (BCH Code) were adopted as a consequence of the revised Annex II of MARPOL 73/78 and the amended International Code for the Construction and Equipment of Ships carrying Dangerous Chemicals in Bulk (IBC Code), which are expected to enter into force on 1 January 2007. The MEPC also adopted a resolution on Early and Effective Application of the 2006 amendments to the BCH Code to invite MARPOL Parties to consider the application of the amendments to the BCH Code, as soon as practically possible, to ships entitled to fly their flag. Also adopted were the revised Guidelines for the provisional assessment of liquids transported in bulk. In this context the Committee urged industry, in particular the chemical industry, to provide information on the revision of List 2 of the MEPC circular which contains pollutant-only mixtures based on section 5 of the revised Guidelines.
  1. Discuss reg 13G, 13F
Ans; New-build tankers are covered by Regulation 13F, while regulation 13G applies to existing crude oil tankers of 20,000 dwt and product carriers of 30,000 dwt and above. Regulation 13G came into effect on 6 July 1995.
Regulation 13F requires all new tankers of 5,000 dwt and above to be fitted with double hulls separated by a space of up to 2 metres (on tankers below 5,000 dwt the space must be at least 0.76m).
As an alternative, tankers may incorporate the "mid-deck" concept under which the pressure within the cargo tank does not exceed the external hydrostatic water pressure. Tankers built to this design have double sides but not a double bottom. Instead, another deck is installed inside the cargo tank with the venting arranged in such a way that there is an upward pressure on the bottom of the hull.
Other methods of design and construction may be accepted as alternatives "provided that such methods ensure at least the same level of protection against oil pollution in the event of a collision or stranding and are approved in principle by the Marine Environment Protection Committee based on guidelines developed by the Organization.
For oil tankers of 20,000 dwt and above new requirements were introduced concerning subdivision and stability.
The amendments also considerably reduced the amount of oil, which can be discharged into the sea from ships (for example, following the cleaning of cargo tanks or from engine room bilges). Originally oil tankers were permitted to discharge oil or oily mixtures at the rate of 60 litres per nautical mile. The amendments reduced this to 30 litres. For non-tankers of 400 grt and above, the permitted oil content of the effluent which may be discharged into the sea is cut from 100 parts per million to 15 parts per million.
Regulation 24(4), which deals with the limitation of size and arrangement of cargo tanks, was also modified.
Regulation 13G applies to existing crude oil tankers of 20,000 dwt and product carriers of 30,000 dwt and above. Tankers that are 25 years old and which were not constructed according to the requirements of the 1978 Protocol to MARPOL 73/78 have to be fitted with double sides and double bottoms. The Protocol applies to tankers ordered after 1 June 1979, which were begun after 1 January 1980 or completed after 1 June 1982. Tankers built according to the standards of the Protocol are exempt until they reach the age of 30.  Existing tankers are subject to an enhanced programme of inspections during their periodical, intermediate and annual surveys. Tankers that are five years old or more must carry on board a completed file of survey reports together with a conditional evaluation report endorsed by the flag Administration. Tankers built in the 1970s which are at or past their 25th must comply with Regulation 13F. If not, their owners must decide whether to convert them to the standards set out in regulation 13F, or to scrap them. Another set of tankers built according to the standards of the 1978 protocol will soon be approaching their 30th birthday - and the same decisions must be taken.

  1. discuss future amendments of SOLAS?

  1. types of certificates on that ship P&A( Procedures and Arrangement) manual , SOPEP
  1. international tonnage certificate
  2. international load line certificate
  3. international loadline exemption certificate
  4. certificates for masters, officers and rating
  5. International oil pollution  prevention certificate
  6. International air pollution prevention certificate, ( EIAPP for new ships )
  7. Copy of DOC, and SMC
  8. cargo ship safety certificate
    • cargo ship safety equipment
    • cargo ship safety construction certificate
    • cargo ship safety radio certificate
  9. CLC certificate
  10. international sewage pollution prevention certificate
  11. certificate of compliance for VDR
  12. international ships security certificate

  1. intact stability
  2. damaged control plan
  3. minumum safe manning document
  4. Fire safety training manual
  5. Fire control plan booklet
  6. on board training and drills record (official log book)
  7. Oil record book
  8. garbage management plan and record book
  9. Cargo securing manual( container ship)
  10. Nox technical file
  11. ship board  oil pollution emergency plan
  12. ships security plan
  13. SMS manual
  14. continuous synopsis record

Oil tanker
1. statement of compliance if vessel is older than 15 yrs

  1. record of ODMCS for last ballast voyage
  2. ODMC operational manual
  3. crude oil washing manual
  4. DCBT operation manual

  1. MS act – purpose , define marine causality

"distressed seaman" means a seaman engaged under this Act who, by reason of having been discharged or left behind from, or shipwrecked, in any ship at a place outside India, is in distress at that place;
"master" includes any person (except a pilot or harbour master) having command or charge of a ship;
"seaman" means every person (except a master, pilot or apprentice) employed or engaged as a member of the crew of a ship under this Act, but in relation to sections 178 to 183 (inclusive) includes a master;
Shipping casualties and report thereof.- (1) For the purposes of investigations and inquires under this part, a shipping casualty shall be deemed to occur when
(a) on or near the coasts of India, any ship is lost, abandoned, stranded or materially damaged;
(b) on or near the coasts of India, and ship because loss or material damage to any other ship;
(c) any loss of life ensues by reason of any casualty happening to or on board any ship on or near the coasts of India;
(d) in anyplace, any such loss,.abandonment, stranding,.material damage or casually as above mention occurs to or on board any Indian ship, and any competent witness thereof is found in India;
(e) any India ship is lost or is supposed to have been lost.any evidence is obtainable in India as to the circumstances under which she proceeded to sea or was last heard of-
  1. type of insurance , certificate of financial responsibility, ( CLC and P&I club)
Ans; Marine Insurance can be divided into three sections:
 Marine Hull insurance, Marine Hull policies are usually time policies, the maximum period of insurance usually being 12 months. It covers loss/damage suffered to a ship and machinery of vessel.
 Marine Cargo insurance The insurance of goods in transit from one place to another by any single mode or combined modes of sea, rail, road, air and inland waterways. Under marine cargo, export and import shipments, including air and registered post as well as goods in transit by rail/ road/ air/ post can be insured.  
 P&I Clubs insurance. Shipowners take P&I insurance cover in respect of third party liabilities and expenses arising from owning ships or operating ships as principals. An insurance mutual, a Club, provides collective self insurance to its members.
For trade to the United States, one has to make sure their ship complies with the special US Coast Guard regulations for US waters and in particular the OPA 90 (Oil Pollution Act, 1990) and COFR (Certificate of Financial Responsibility) requirements. Such a certificate is issued under the provision of CLC convention and is issued by the P&I clubs.

  1. PSC detainable deficiency, how will you calibrate OWS 15 PPM.  if PSCO detains your ship and you feel that cause of detention is not detainable then what will be your action.( court of survey)
Ans: Areas under the SOLAS Convention
Insufficient cleanliness of engine room, excess amount of oily water mixtures in bilges, insulation of piping including exhaust pipes in engine room contaminated by oil, improper operation of bilge pumping arrangements
Failure of the proper operation of propulsion and other essential machinery, as well as electrical installations
Failure of the proper operation of emergency generator, lighting, batteries and switches
Failure of the proper operation of the main and auxiliary steering gear Absence, insufficient capacity or serious deterioration of personal life saving appliances, survival craft and launching arrangements
Absence, non compliance or substantial deterioration of fire detection system, fire alarms, firefighting equipment, fixed fire extinguishing installation, ventilation valves, fire dampers, quick closing devices to the extent that they cannot comply with their intended use
Absence, non-compliance or serious deterioration of lights, shapes or sound signals
Absence or failure of the proper operation of the radio equipment for distress and safety communication
Areas under the Load Lines Convention
Significant areas of damage or corrosion, or pitting of plating and associated stiffening in decks and hull affecting seaworthiness or strength to take local loads, unless proper temporary repairs for a voyage to a port for permanent repairs have been carried out
insufficient stability
The absence of sufficient and reliable information, in an approved form, which by rapid and simple means, enables the master to arrange for the loading and ballasting of his ship in such a way that a safe margin of stability is maintained at all stages and at varying conditions of the voyage, and that the creation of any unacceptable stresses in the ship’s structure are avoided.
Absence, substantial deterioration or defective closing devices, hatch closing arrangements and watertight doors
Absence of draft mark or draft mark impossible to read.
Areas under the MARPOL Convention, Annex I
Absence, serious deterioration or failure of proper operation of oily water filtering equipment, the oil discharge monitoring and control system or the 15 ppm alarm arrangement
Remaining capacity of slop and/or sludge tank insufficient for the intended voyage
Unauthorised discharge bypass fitted
Oil Record Book not available
Survey report file missing or not in conformity
Areas under the MARPOL Convention, Annex II
Absence of the P&A Manual
Cargo is not categorized
No cargo record book available
Unauthorised discharge bypass fitted.
Areas under the STCW
Failure of seafarers to hold a certificate, to have an appropriate certificate, to have a valid dispensation or to provide documentary proof that an application for an endorsement has been submitted to the flag State administration.
Failure to provide proof of professional proficiency for the duties assigned to seafarers for the safety of the ship and the prevention of pollution.
Areas under the ILO Conventions
  1. Insufficient food for voyage to next port (Convention 68 Article 5(2)(a)).
  2. Insufficient potable water for voyage to next port (Convention 68 Article 5(2)(a)).
OWS  cannot be calibrated on board by ship board personnel’s, it can be only calibrated by the with the aid of the calibrating equipments, through a technician qualified by the maker.
It can only be checked on board by the a sampling kit which can only indicate that the IOPP equipment is required to be calibrated. If PSCO detains without any valid reason,
Then as a chief engineer make a report of it and inform the flag state with all the facts and figures, inform company. And classification society.
A chief engineer can also appeal to the port state for another survey by another surveyor, he must report the grounds of detention with full facts and figures, if port state thinks it valid then they may appoint another surveyor, and results of both surveyors can be considered as the case of detention.
  1. training to engine room crew about emergency
identify the types of emergencies
  1. flooding, find source of flooding , try to isolate if possible, start bilge pumps in case major flooding,
  2. grounding, check all ship side , frames and structures, sound all the tanks, if possible stop the main engine in consultation with bridge,
  3. fire, if possible restrict the fire- remove combustible material, or discharge a portable fire extinguisher, inform bridge of the extent, location of fire, keep safe away from the fire, all remaining crew to muster and prepare for the fire fighting, shut down the
  4. blackout
  5. critical machinery failure
  6. steering failure
  7. Man overboard
  8. rough weather
  9. abandon ship
  10. collision
  11. security breach
  12. oil pollution,  inform master or chief engineer of the probable oil discharged, notify the contents with the SOPEP locker, location of sopep locker, carry out containment, importance of identification of source of pollution. Means of communication, be alert while bunkering and fuel transfer operations, don’t transfer the fuel unattended, don’t gag any fuel tank self closing drain valve, location of remote stops of such transfer pumps, keep checking sounding of all the concerned tanks,
raise alarm, follow checklists, inform bridge or chief engineer of the type of emergency, carry out drills,

  1. how will you prepare for external audit ISM

  1. define seaworthiness
Ans; the ship must, at the commencement of the voyage, be seaworthy for the purpose of the particular voyage insured. Thus a ship is deemed to be seaworthy when ‘reasonably fit in all respects to encounter the ordinary perils of the seas of the adventure insured’
Voyage seaworthiness
Technical seaworthiness
Cargo seaworthiness

Define Seaworthiness. What is the difference between an unseaworthy ship and a unsafe ship?


Seakeeping ability is a measure of how well-suited a vessel is to conditions when underway. A ship or boat which has good seakeeping ability is said to be very seaworthy and is able to operate effectively even in high sea states.

In ship design it is important to pre-determine the behavior of the ship or floating structure when it is subjected to waves. This can be calculated, found through physical model testing and ultimately measured on board the vessel. Calculations can be performed analytically for simple shapes like rectangular barges, but need to be calculated by computer for any realistic shaped ship. The results of some of these calculations or model tests called Response Amplitude Operators (RAO). For a floating structure they will need to be calculated for all six motions and for all relative wave headings.
Ship motions are defined by the six degrees of freedom that a ship or boat can experience.
Heave : is the linear vertical (up/down) motion
Sway : is the linear lateral (side-to-side) motion
Surge : is the linear longitudinal (front/back) motion
Roll : is when the vessel rotates about the longitudinal (front/back) axis.
Pitch : is when the vessel rotates about the transverse (side-to-side) axis.
Yaw : is when the vessel rotates about the vertical (up-down) axis.
Anything that poses a threat to the continued well being of Ship, Cargo or Crew is said to be a Danger.
Being protected from Danger is “Safe”.
Being exposed to Danger is considered Unsafe.
Therefore a ship that is not protected from dangers is called an “Unsafe Ship”

  1. what is philosophy of registry
  1. define affidavit
Ans; an affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact written down signed by the declarant (who is also known as affiant and witnessed as to the varsity of the affiant signature) by a taker of oath such as notary public,

  1. what is affreightment
Ans; contract of affreightment
is an agreement between a charterer and a shipowner, disponent owner or carrier for the carriage of a specified (and often large) quantity of specified goods between specified places, over a specified (and usually long) period of time, by vessels of a type and size stipulated by the charterer, but which are nominated by the owners. The goods to be carried and the total period are clearly defined, but the shipment dates may be approximate, often giving an even spread of shipments over the period (which may, for example, be 12 months). A stated minimum quantity must usually be loaded each voyage, with a “more-or-less” margin at the option of either the charterers (MOLCO) or the owners (MOLOO). the owners agree to transport an agreed volume of cargo over a specified period; the charterers nominate cargoes and loading dates; the owners nominate suitable vessels.

  1. what are the functions of MMD and Registrar
Ans: registration of ships;, surveys, port state inspection, examination and certification of various grades of competency, inspection and approval of LSA,FFA, Navigational equipments, investigation into accidents and casuality
  1. pollution ( local P&I) , 1/4th is not giving what will you do
  2. collision ( 3/4th HULL & MACHINERY) ( 1/4th P&I)
  3. OPRC convention India agreement with which all countries
Ans; srilanka, pakistan, Maldives,
  1. definition of liabilities

  1. what  was the reason of sudden losses of bulk carriers in 1990

  1. what is the purpose of ballast water mgt
  2. what is act of god

  1. what are the C/E responsibilities as per ISM

  1. equipment failure.
  2. what is importance of masters review

  1. example for third party for the ship.
  2. difference between ESP and CAS
  3. MARPOL reg 13 G
  4. define accidents
  5. what are elements of SOPEP

  1. why a ship required to be registered in which convention does it come

  1. define emergency preparedness

  1. what is FAL convention

  1. what is development in charter party

  1. what is rem ; in res
  2. compensation regieme
  3. superstructure definition; is bridge a superstructure
  4. third party liability – definition and example
  5. specific to tanker – give one detainable deficiency
  6. what is flag state control
  7. ship is deliverd in foreign port what will you do as C/E ( 5 things)

  1. developments in turbocharger nozzle rings flow

  1. name 5 offence on board

  1. reliability based on maintenance

  1. quality mgt 5 key points

  1. loadline latest amendments

  1. damage control booklet
  2. Chemical (HNS) carrier certificate as per marpol

  1. LRIT – range
  2. ship identification – what is LRIT and AIS
  3. 5 points – what is the reason for equipment failure

  1. Differentiate between maritime liens and mortgage
  2.  Conflict between India and IMO, what will be the effect.
  3.  What is M.S. ACT?
  4. PSC is harassing you what action will you take.
  5. Gross tonnage and net tonnage- define

  1.  What is seaman is the master included all the time.

  1.  Entire crew is on strike what will you do

  1. What is a third party?
  2.  An OBO is changed over from ore to oil, what will be the effect on DOC /SMC

  1.  DOC is invalid and company has 40 ships what will be the effect. Does all the ships stops trading

  1. What are clear grounds?

  1.  My ship is brand new and is not registered anywhere and you as a charterers will you load cargo on my ship.

  1. why do u require registry of ship.

  1. what cover provided by P&I club.

  1. What shipboard health and safety document plan?
  2. What are the essential features of quality management system?

  1. What do you mean by objective evidence.
  2. Various oil covers provided for ship.
  3. Condition bared system/ maintenance.
  4. what is a marine casualty?
  5. New delivery sea trial.

  1. Reliability barred index maintenance
  2. Japan built ship mandatory- issue certificate, now to be registered in India.

  1. A chief has taken an strict action against 4/E, together signed off, after 4/E complained against C/E how will you defend yourself.

  1. Hazardous occurrence.
  2. Statutory certificates.

  1. Condition of class-imposed ship is going to Siberia no survey facilities, how will you manage for further inspection.

  1. OPRC – OPR plan integrated with national oil pollution response plan

  1.  All statutory certificates are valid and in inspection ship is found to be unseaworthy, who is to be blamed and why.

  1.  Vessel is OBO how it changes oil to carry ore. What will be effect on SMC and DOC interim DOC and Full time SMC what intermediate assessment in above case.

  1. How funds are collected in P&I clubs, what is pooling
  2. What are the worldwide Hull & machinery insurance?
  3. if flooding contingency plan is wrong what action will you take.
  4. in case of engine room flooding what will be your action as chief engineer.
1. Explain the following terms:
a)      Charter party
b)      Freight
c)       Laytime
d)      Bill of lading
e)      Off hire clause
f)       Contract of affringement.
g)      Bare boat charter.
h)      Lloyds open form
i)        GA & PA
j)        Treaty, convention and protocol.

2. What are P & I clubs? How P & I clubs collect funds from ships. Risks covered       under P & I.

3. Principles of modern salvage law? What is GA, explain in context to GA
a.       Entitlement.
b.      Artificial adjustment.
c.       Contestation.

4. Reasons for bulk carrier losses and amendments of Solas 74 – chapter xii to reduce losses.

5. As per marine insurance act – write notes on
a)      Deviation
b)      Warranties
c)       War risk clause
d)      Charterer’s contribution clause.

6. Primary strategy for coping stress affected personnel, implementation for better team work.

7.  Explain PSC inspection. Underline its authority for exercising basis of such inspection – enumerate relevant regulations articles and annexes of Solas 74, Load line 66, Marpol 73/78, STCW 95 and Tonnage 69 which form provisions for PSC.
8. Differentiate third party liability and contractual liability. When may the ship owner seek to limit his liability? List the persons entitled to limit liability and claims entrusted.

9. As a chief engineer describe the procedure you would employ for bunkering at a port for ascertaining and receiving correct grade and quantity of oil from shore supplies. In case of dispute over LO/ FO received describe the actions you would take in these circumstances. What are the applicable provisions under Marpol 73/78 annex VI regulations?

10. Unclos provisions concerning ships flag & nationality. In observation what are the duties of flag states and how are they enforced?

11. Socio cultural differences have been an accepted fact in major merchant ships. Explain how these differences generate inter personnel conflict and affect the safety management. How can they be resolved onboard?

12. Your company has deputed you to take over a second hand bulk carrier. The vessel is registered under Indian flag. As a chief engineer and owners representative what aspects would you look for
a) Solas 74.
b) Marpol 73/78.
c) Crew accommodation.
d) Machinery/Boiler.
e) Previous survey report

     13) Explain the associated key factors and activities to ensure planned maintenance programmes onboard ships and ISM codes with the following terms.
                                a) Corrective action process.
                                b) Developing and improving maintenance records.
                                c) Systematic approach to maintenance.
                                d) Maintenance intervals.
                                e) Inspections.

14) Differentiate between rules, regulations , Protocol, Act, Tacit acceptance and convention as adapted in IMO. Describe the process by which a draft proposal gets converted into a rule administered by a maritime member country.
     15) During dry dock what are the steps you take in aspects of co- ordination, and exchange of info with master – preparation required along with engineers regarding delegation of work. Organising with dry dock authorities for undocking the vessel.

    16) Protection of Marine environment is of utmost importance today. Discuss – ensure protection of environment by compliance with various regulations of MARPOL 73/78.Annex I for prevention and control of pollution at sea.
                State the requirements for compliance under annex VI of Marpol 73/78.

    17) Wrt PSC inspection, what are clear grounds, and ISM related deficiencies for a PSC officer to conduct a detailed inspection. Deficiencies leading to detention of ship and how to avert it.

   18) Highlight the following amendments to IMO conventions and its effect in operation thereof. Mention their date of entry into force.
                                a) CLC and FUND convention.
                                b) Solas- IMDG code.

                 19) Salient factors for onboard training and standard of competence as per       STCW 95, Chapter III. Requirements of C/E for training e/r personnel and criteria for assesment.

                 20) ILO  convention 2006(no 186).

                 21) List objectives of ISM external audit? How does an internal audit help in  external audit of a vessel. Name the salient issues addressed in external audit and persons responsible for carrying out external audit. What are safety management principles in ISM to guide ship owners.

             22) Detail the inspection that you as a C/E of a passenger vessel would make on joining the ship with regard to a) stability b) damage control c) fire fighting d) critical machinery.

             23) State the circumstances which may lead to suspension or withdrawal of class.
Explain following terms
a)      Period of class
b)      Anniversary date
c)       Survey time window
d)      Memoranda
e)      Recommendations.

            24) While approaching a port an accident took place , resulting in grounding of  vessel. A team of surveyors carried out inspection of vessel and official records. Company has advised you to submit the report along with the relevant log book records for formulating an opinion regarding cause of grounding. In case the grounding was not due to machinery failure , same may be brought out in the report.

           25) During bunkering of a vessel in foreign port , a substantial amount of spillage of oil in water has taken place. Draw an emergency preparedness plan for such an incident.

          26) vsl in which you are posted as C/E is undergoing dd and a serious fire occurs on deck because of welding. Illustrate documented procedures to deal with such emergency and its advantages over non documented actions.explain different ship related contingencies against which documented procedures exist .

           27) wrt Unclos explain
              a) territorial sea
              b) Contiguous zone.
              c) Exclusive economic zone.
              d) Continental shelf
              e) High seas.

         28) Differentiate between annual survey, intermediate, renewal, damage and repair                                            surveys. What is purpose of each survey and enlist list of statutory certificates carried on board , their issuing authority and IMO convention under which they are issued?

         29) Ballast Water Management.

         30) Explain associated key factors and activities to ensure successful PMS under ISM code, explain.
              a) corrective action process
              b) Developing and improving maintenance programmes.
              c) Systematic approach to maintenance.
              d) Maintenance intervals.
              e) Inspections.

1             (a) Explain the need for taking series (set) of power cards to assess engine performance
(b)  Explain minimum information required from the power card for accurate assessment of engine performance  (Hint- MIP, Pmax, Pcomp)
            (c)  Explain the significance of:
·         Out of phase diagram (draw card)
·         Light spring diagram

2             Explain with the aid of power, draw and light spring cards how following abnormalities affect engine performance:
      (i)   Piston ring leakage
      (ii) T/C fouled gas sides
           (iii) Low fuel injection pressure
      What is the limitation of above method of monitoring?

3             Explain how following abnormalities can be identified in a large engine with the aid of modern  electronic equipment and performance monitoring concepts:

(i)        Hull / propeller fouling and effects on main propulsion engine
(ii)      Abnormalities fuel and / or fuel injection systems , fuel pump wear
(iii)     Mechanical condition in the cylinder
(iv)     Turbocharger Gas side fouling
(v)      Turbocharger air side fouling
(vi)     Air cooler air side fouling
(vii)    Air cooler water side fouling
            (viii) Cylinder liner cold corrosion

4             Explain the effect on the on engine performance if it is operated with
·   high Pmax
·   low Pmax

5             Explain the effect of variation in
·   Fuel density
·   Scavenge pressure and temperature
·   Ambient temperature and pressure
On Pmax, Pcomp, Texh, Power and speed of the engine

Q What is nonconformity? State ground for PSC detention under ISM code?

A  Non-conformity means an observed situation where objective evidence indicated  
    the non-fulfilment of a special requirement.
    Has relevant valid documentation.
Has the ship sufficient and suitable crew as required in the minimum safe manning document.
During inspection the PSCO must also assess weather the ship and crew is able to carry out the following tasks during the forthcoming voyage.
  • Safe navigation
  • Safety handle, carry and monitor the condition of the cargo.
  • Operate the ER safely
  • Maintain proper propulsion and steering
  • Fight effectively fires in any part of the ship
  • Abandon ship speedily and safely and effect rescue if necessary
  • Prevent pollution of the environment
  • Maintain stability
  • Maintain water tight integrity
  • Communicate in distress situation
  • Provide safe and healthy conditions on board.

Potential for detention:

  • Propulsion essential machinery as well as electrical installations
  • Engine room cleanliness including bilges, ER lagging, and the correct operation of bilge pumping operation.
  • Em gen, lighting batteries and switches
  • Main and aux steering gear
  • Personnel LSA
  • FFA equipments- FFA equipments for cargo areas of tankers
  • Nav lights, shapes. or sound signals.
  • Radio equip.
  • Nav equip.
  • Charts and other nautical publications.
  • Non sparking exhaust ventilation for cargo pump room.

Q.  How can class withdraw Class?

A.  The classification of a ship is based on the understanding that the ship is loaded,   operated and maintained in a proper manner by competent and qualified crew or operating personnel. It is the owner's responsibility to ensure proper maintenance of the ship until the next survey required by the rules. It is the duty of the owner, or its representative, to inform the surveyor, on boarding the ship, of any events or circumstances affecting the class.

 Where the conditions for the maintenance of class are not complied with, class will be suspended, withdrawn or revised to a different notation, as deemed appropriate by the society when it becomes aware of the condition. The ship may lose its class either temporarily or permanently. In the former case it is referred to as “suspension” of class; in the latter case as “withdrawal” of class. In the case of surveys that are not carried out within the specified time frame, or if the vessel is operated in a manner that is outside its classification designation, the suspension may be automatic.

Q what are the contents of oil record book? (part I & II)

Q what are the contents of an ODMCS printout?

Q You are a C/E  of a product tanker entering USA, besides OPA what are the other conventions , under which the ship should carry different certificates.

  • A. International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, 2001.Ships will need to carry evidence of compliance.

  • CLC 92 proof of that.

  • Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims (LLMC), 1976

Q.6   Preparing for external audit?

Q. 7.   Emergency preparedness – define? How will you tackle a bunker spill? What is your first action and reaction?

Q8 Contents of BDN – Bunker Delivery Note.

Q9.  NSB? What is its role?
  1. What are the statuatory certificates required for a 15 year old tanker.
( Mention all certificates plus the Statement of compliance (Soc) of CAS survey)
  1. What is Nonconfirmity? State grounds for PSC detention under ISM code?
  2. How can a class withdraw Class?
  3. What are the Contents of Oil Record Book?( Part I and Part II)?
  4. What are the contents of an ODMCS printout? How long do you retain these records ( ORB and ODMCS  ) onboard?
  5. As a chief engineer how will you motivate a multinational crew onboard?
  6. You are a chief engineer of a product tanker entering USA. Besides OPA , what are the other conventions,  under which the ships should carry different certificates, what are these certificates?
  7. How will you prepare your ship for an external audit?
  8. You are a chief engineer of a ship which has suffered a machinery breakdown and ship has gone offhire for 6 hours. How do you defend yourself?
  9. Emergency preparedness - define? How will you tackle a bunker spill?what is your first action and reaction to it?
  10. Contents of BDN?
  11. What are measurable and nonconformity?
  12. NSB? What is its role?
  13. Describe Structure of IMO?, General assembly once in how many years will it convene?
  14. What is PSSA? How is it different from special areas?
  15. What is ISPS? What is ship alert system, how does it work?
  16. Define Sp.cyl oil consumption, what is your engines sp.cyl.oil. consumption?
  17. Explain alpha lubrication system?
  18. What is latest development in turbochargers?
  19. Under what conditions are SMC, DOC, Interim SMC, Interim DOC issued?
  20. Regarding Marpol regulations – explain conditions in air pollution?
  21. What are different types of Audit? what are additional audits like Initial, annual , final….
  22. There is excessive hull vibrations on a new ship coming out of dock – as a chief engineer what actions do you  take?
  23. ISPS code? What is your actions for different levels?
  24. Emergency preparedness for steering failure?
  25. Emergency preparedness for Helicopter landing?
  26. How do you plan for a drydock – before, and after docking?
  27. What is economic order quantity? What is your role as C/E?
  28. What is P& I club? What are policies not covered under p & I ?
  29. What is B/l? explain clean and dirty B/L?
  30. As a C/E what do you do when you have to pull out propeller before and after the process in a DD?
  31. What are necessary conditions for Emcy Fire pump?
  32. What are necessary conditions for emcy generator?
  33. What are different H& M policies?
  34. How do you calculate SFOC?
  35. What is Energy audit? How do you manage energy efficiently in a boiler and M/E?
  36. As a C/E how will you train your staff for Ballast water management?
  37. How does a draft proposal gets implemented into a draft acceptance?
  38. What is CAS, CAP? How will you prepare your ship for CAS survey, CAP survey?
  39. GA/PA explain with one example.
  40. What is cesser clause, Lien clause?
  41. What is Inch Maree clause?
  42. According to Marpol what are different catagories of tankers?
  43. SFOC is high, what is your immediate action?
  44. In a passenger ship – fire in ECR, emergency preparedness?
  45. How do you register a ship built outside india?
  46. History of P& I club?
  47. How does an EPIRB work?
  48. What role does a computer play in running of ships?
  49. Contents of Garbage record book?
  50. What is Sue and Labour clause?
  51. Contents of official log book?
  52. Passenger vessel grounded in shallow waters due to S/G failure- what is emergency response?
  53. In a bareboat charter if goods were sold midway, what will happen to B/L?
  54. According to Marpol – can a product tanker carry Vegetable oil?If yes under what regulation, if no why not?
  55. What are dynamic elements of ISM, why do we need them?
  56. Spares Inventory, effective ways of using spares?
  57. As a C/E how will you prepare your vessel for vetting survey?
  58. What are permanent certificates onboard a ship?
  59. What is Damage survey, special survey?
  60. What is laytime, Laycan, deadfreight, back freight, NOR, Layday?
  61. How do you mortgage a ship? How do you take a ship out of mortgage?
  62. Marpol – incinerator regn.
  63. How does viscosity affect fuel timing?
  1. What are common chapters in ISM and ISO?
  2. Combustion time period? Whats it effect of combustion process?
  3. Why do we need VIT? Why was VIT developed?
  4. T/C latest developments?
  5. Marpol  - what are sewage regulations?
  6. What are elements of ISM code?
  7. Relationship between Fuel quality and combustion? What will you do as C/E if the bunkers in your ship has excessive viscosity, carbon content?
  8. If a ship is sailing without any cargo insurance, what are its risks and liabilities?
  9. How FQS and VIT helps in economy of fuel?
  10. What is unclos? Role? How is PSC empowered by UNCLOS?
  11. What is dynamic stability and how is it applied to ship?
  12. What is damage stability and damage buoyancy?
  13. Impact of controlled combustion period on combustion?
  1. P&I club, role , functions , policies?
  2. Whats reinsurance , market insurance?
  3. What is institute time clause, different types.
  4. According to STCW 95, How can you train a crew for Fire fighting?
  5. How will you motivate E/R crew?
  6. What is emergency preparedness for excessive list?
  7. What are different types of warranties?
  8. Bulk carrier safeties?
  9. A ship is built at Korea what are its registration procedure, documents required?
  10. What is open policy, blanket policy, floating policy, what type of insurance do they fall?
  11. What is laycan, layday, demurrage?
  12. Reasons for a vessel capsizing?
  13. What are latest Marpol regulations?
Q1)  Write briefly what is understood by the following:-
·         Memoranda
·         Enhanced Survey Programe (ESP)
·         Bareboat charter
·         What are the major steps of  FSA


Other information of assistance to the surveyor and owners may be recorded as ‘memoranda’ or a similar term. They may, for example, include notes concerning materials, barred engine speed ranges and other constructional information. A memorandum may also define a structural condition which, though deviating from the technical standard, does not affect the class (e.g. slight indents in the shell, which do not have an effect upon the overall strength of the hull, or minor deficiencies, which do not affect the operational safety of the machinery).

In addition, memoranda could define recurring survey requirements, such as annual survey of specified spaces, or retrofit requirements, which have the de-facto effect of conditions of class. Specific questions in relation to the meaning of memoranda / recommendations / conditions of class are to be addressed to the classification society concerned though the owner of the ship.


Adopted by IMO Assembly, 1993 resolution 744(18).
Further SOLAS regulation  XI/2 was adopted to making compliance of ESP mandatory.
These requirements apply to surveys of hull structures and piping systems in way of cargo holds or tanks, pump rooms, cofferdams, pipe tunnels, void spaces within cargo spaces within the cargo spaces and ballast tanks in general.
Enhances surveys involve overall surveys, close up surveys, thickness determination with prompt repairs if required.
The main causes of bulk carrier casualties were analysed to be:

         Corrosion due to age & certain cargos
         The effects of demanding operational practices such as cargo handling methods  or loading patterns.
         Leading to general deterioration, damages, fatigue cracks etc.
         Resulting in weakened side structure and leaking corroded and deformed hatch covers.
In tankers it was found that number of oil spills and accidents were caused by deteriorated structural conditions. So the purposes of Enhanced surveys were to:

         Detect and correct structural damage and structural deterioration beyond  permissible limits through a survey programme specifically aimed at these aspects.
         ncourage application and maintenance of protective measures against corrosion.
         This will maintain the water tight integrity and the structural strength to enhance safety and prevent pollution prevention.

Bareboat Charter

In this arrangement a charterer charters—in the ship similar to long term time charter, but without manning (complement onboard). 
The charterer thus becomes responsible for the manning/ maintenance and supplies which otherwise forms the responsibility of the owner. 
This charter is generally a long term arrangement with option to buy at the end of charter period. 
Name of the ship and other particulars are already spelt out in this charter party as in the case of other charters.

What is FSA?

Is a structured and systematic methodology, aimed at enhancing maritime safety, including protection of life, health, the marine environment and property, by using risk analysis and cost benefit assessment. Can be used as a tool to help in the evaluation of new regulations for maritime safety and protection of the marine environment or in making a comparison between existing and possibly improved regulations, with a view to achieving a balance between the various technical and operational issues, including the human element, and between maritime safety or protection of the marine environment and costs.

FSA consists of five steps:
  1. identification of hazards (a list of all relevant accident scenarios with potential causes and outcomes);
  2. assessment of risks (evaluation of risk factors);
  3. risk control options (devising regulatory measures to control and reduce the identified risks);
  4. cost benefit assessment (determining cost effectiveness of each risk control option); and
  5. recommendations for decision-making (information about the hazards, their associated risks and the cost effectiveness of alternative risk control options is provided).












1. WRT to BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT, why alien species are attacking, why   can’t they be attacked.

2. WRT  to Emergency preparedness
a) cold start failure of main engine, A/E & , Boiler etc.
In order to avoid such a situation, it is always advisable to keep the Main Engine, the Aux Engine and the Boiler in a “warmed up“ condition at all times.
Before starting up cold machinery, a ‘Risk Assessment’  is to be done and cold machinery should be started only if the risk is worth taking.
When  the cold start fails, we will already be aware of the threats to Safety and will have to take appropriate action (grounding, collision etc)

b)   both steering gear failure:
   Assess the Risk to decide if there is an Emergency. An emergency is when there is a threat to the Safety of Life, Ship or Cargo. If there is a risk of grounding, collisions etc, take appropriate action.
   Next analyze your resources and determine if repair can be done with the available resources. Repair, if possible and if not, ask for assistance

3.  Latest developments in refrigeration recently implemented onboard, what is going to      come, what is in near future (on research).
    - Latest development in ultrasonic catalytic cracking

4. What is relation between SOPEP and ISM
SOPEPP is a plan of action AFTER an Oil pollution has taken place. (Emergency Prepardness plan).
ISM code is  Management System to PREVENT pollution

5.  WHO can sign LLOYDS OPEN FORM other than MASTER?

6. WHAT is first document of ISM?

   Company Policy

7  .INTACT STABILITY relation with respect to ISM.

8.  WHAT is meant by port facility?
A port is a facility for receiving ships and transferring cargo.
Some of the facilities provided in a Port include a) Ports often have cargo-handling equipment such as cranes (operated by b) stevedores) and c) forklifts for use in loading/unloading of ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies.. d) Harbour pilots and e) tugboats are often used to maneuver large ships in tight quarters as they approach and leave the f) docks. Ports which handle international traffic have g) customs facilities.

9.  Management review???

      Management Reviews are conducted at Planned intervals to ensure continued suitability, adequacy and effectiveness of the systems
     The review includes assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for
     changes with respect to ISM systems on board ship.

1.        What is ISPS? When did ISPS come into force?
2.       What documents/records to be carried under ISPS?
3.       What is meant by “declaration of Security”?
4.       Who decides on Security levels at Port?
5.       What is meant by a Port Facility?
6.       At what security levels are Indian Ports?
7.       Where do you get this information from?
8.       What are restricted Areas? How are these areas decided upon?
9.       What do you mean by Ship Security Assessment?
10.   What action will you take if your vessel  interfaces with a non-ISPS compliant port?
11.   What is Management Review? Who all attend the same?
12.   Ships  need to carry one spare Coalescer filter for the Oily Water separator? Under what code/regulation is this required?
13.   How will you prepare for an ISM Audit?
14.   What are the Procedures for  ISM certification  of a   a) Company   b) Ship?
15.   Difference between CLC and FUND Convention. What are their limits of Liability?
16.   What is meant by “Condition of Class’? Can you change class? If so, how?
17.   What is the latest in Bulk Carrier Safety?
18.   Why STCW 95 divided into STCW Code?
19.   As a Chief Engineer, what are the various checks you will carry out before taking Bunkers?
20.   What are Operational requirements under MARPOL Annexe 1?
21.   What is NOx Technical Code?
22.   What supplement to IAPP certificate to be carried?
23.   What are the recent Air Pollution prevention developments? What rules are being phased in for 2010 and 2016?
24.   What are the recent developments in Engines?
25.   What are the regulations under Anexxe IV and V of MARPOL?
26.   What is a ‘note of Protest’?

1. Documents to check prior to bunkering.
2. ISPS documents
3. Fixed foam what checks/maintenance.
4. Loadline survey.
5. P&I claims.
6. Marpol latest.
7. Solas latest.
8. Latest M/E
9. Latest OWS
10. ESP.
11. What is sua.has India ratified it? (Yes)
12. What is national shipping board? What are its functions?
13. Continous Synopsis record.
14. Additional certificate carried on tankers.
15. IMO NO.
16. Latest amendments for bulk carriers.
17. Lifeboat maintenance.
18. Lifeboat tests.
19. Seafarers recruiting agencies to be registered. Describe.
20. Describe HSSC. 
21. STCW 78&95 differences.
22. SEQ survey.
23. Safety construction survey.
24. ISM before and after, advantages to the c/e.
25. What is an article?
26. What is a Nox technical file?
27. Nox reduction methods.
28. What is deficiency, finding, observation, nonconformity? 
29. How is a freefall lifeboat launched?
30. C/E's responsibilities as per ism code.
31. IOPP survey preparation.
32. IAPP survey preparation.
33. Local fixed firefighting system (high pr water mist).
34. CLC and P&I differences.
35. What is a nox technical code?
36. SEQ survey fixed co2 system.
37. Important checks prior to dry-docking.
38. Protocols of Marpol.
39. Protocols of Solas.
40. Safety radio survey.
41. Define bulk carrier.
42. M/E lo sump maintained very low. what will be the consequences.
43. How the internal audit helps in formulating training for the crew.
44. How a ship is registered in India.
45. Describe internal audit.
46. What certificate are there onboard related to portable fire extinguishers.
47. What is free in and out?
48. What is management review?
49. What is bunker convention?
50. Container ship construction.
51. Bulk carrier construction.
52. In a foreign port oil spill has occurred during bunkering. what actions.
53. Safety radio survey. To what all ships it is applicable.
54. What are the antipollution equipment onboard.
55. To what all ships Marpol annex4 applies.
56. Who is a freight forwarder?
57. What is deadweight, NRT, GRT?
58. Describe COLREG.
59. What is ISM code?
60. Describe wreck.
61. What is ISM, why it is required? 
62. Certificate of registry 
63. Relation between SOLAS and MS act 
64. Relation between SOLAS and ISM 
65. Certificates recommended on board with validity 
66. What all surveys are done by class 
67. MARPOL 73/78, what is 78 protocol 
68. STCW 78 and 95, why not STCW 78/95 
69. Bunker annex VI, Reg 18 fuel oil quality 
70. What is new in oil sampling? 
71. Before dry-dock what you will check wrt to shore connection 
72. In dry-dock just before flooding you found a hole/crack in the shipside plating what will be your action 
73. What is in certificate of fitness / IBC CODE? 
74. Boiler safety valve survey 
75. Main bearing survey 
76. Fire in engine room 
77. Flag state /port state/ MS act 
78. SOLAS/ MS act 
79. ISM non conformity 
80. What is loadicator 
81. As chief engineer what inspections you will make under load line 
82. As chief engineer how will you go about sea trials 
83. What are new safeties related to a bulk carrier 
84. What are the new safeties related to container 
85. What are the new safeties related to a oil tankers 
86. What difference types of maintenance schedule.
87. Describe the Procedure for the regular maintenance routines to be carried out on the CO2 total flooding system
88. Describe the nature and the possible effects on Machinery operation of deposits which may be found on the internal surface of exhaust gas turbocharger blades and explain how these deposits are removed?
89. With reference to exhaust valves of an Auxilliary engine, describe how valves are reconditioned.
90.  Condition monitoring
91.  Liner gauging
92.  Timing of exhaust valve
93.  Stuffing box


FUNCTION 1: Marine Engineering                                      

1.        Why is Boiler water treatment required?
2. What is the allowed chloride content?
3. Why is the boiler water circulating pump required for EGB?
4. How does a bourbon pressure gauge work?
5. How do you blow through a boiler gauge glass?
6. Why is a ball given in the gauge glass?
7. How do you tighten a gauge glass after assembly?
8. What is the setting of a boiler safety valve?
9. What is the normally allowed chloride content in a water tube boiler?
10. How do you blow down a boiler and inspect it?
11. Why is pre purging necessary before firing boilers?
12. How does flame failure alarm come?
13. Type of boiler burner on last ship
14. What is the voltage used for the ignitor?
15. How will you know EGB is leaking?
16. How will you stop the leak?
17. What is the purpose of soot blowing?
18. When do you start the circulating pump?
19. What is the temperature of steam in the boiler?
20. What is meant by superheated steam?
21. How is a boiler safety valve set?
22. What is the setting?
23. What is the meaning of accumulation of pressure test?
24. How do you blow down a boiler and inspect?
25. How do you repair leaks?
26. How do you blow through gauge glasses?
27. What is the safety mechanism in case the glass breaks?
28. Which part of a ship's boiler has a higher safety valve setting? EGB or auxiliary?
29. When is the pressure testing of boilers done? How is it done?
30. Why is Fridge compressor belt driven?
31. What is meant by 1 ton of refrigeration?
32. Is there any difference in lub oil pressure readings of fridge compressors when compared to air compressors?
33. How do you read the lub oil pressure of fridge compressors?
34. Some times the pressure gauges used in fridge systems also have temperature readings. What is the use of this?
35. How is the temperature of cold room maintained ?
36. What is the role of the TEV?
37. What is mean effective pressure of diesel engine?
38. What is the cooling water treatment
39. What tests are done on L.O.?
40. What is the correct procedure for L.O. sample collection?
41. Exhaust temp of one unit is high; what could be the reason?
42. How is LO for X head lubrication delivered in (B&W/ SULZER Engines)
43. Why is a bursting disc provided in air compressors?
44. Where is it provided?
45. If a bursting disk ruptures, what will be your action?
46. What are the safeties fitted on air compressors?
47. If the interstage relief valve is lifting, what could be the reason?
48. Why is multistage compression used?
49. How will you test the working of a compressor safety valve?
50. How does the Oil mist detector work?
51. How will you test the opening pressure of a crank case relief door?
52. How many tie rods will be there? Function of tie rods?
53. What is a lantern ring?
54. What is the role of the Thrust block ?
55. Where is the thrust bearing in MC series or RTA engines?
56. Why is the thrust bearing at the aft end of the engine and not at the forward end?
57. Why is the thrust bearing close to the engine and not close to the stern tube?
58. What is the allowed O2 content in IG? How is it controlled?
59. M/E stuffing box components?
60. What is the role of the stuffing box?
61. What is the difference between stuffing box drain oil and scavenge space drain oil?
62. Why are piston rings changed?
63. What is the difference between a PV breaker and PV valve? What are the settings?
64. Why is deck seal used in IG systems?
65. What are the COPT trips?
66. What is the starting procedure for COPT?
67. 4 stroke Valve timing diagram
68. What are the strokes in 2 stroke and four stroke engines
69. Difference between purifier and clarifier
70. What is the separation principle used in purifiers?
71. What is the relation between oil density and gravity disc diameter?
72. Why are telescopic pipes used for oil lubrication?
73. Why is Fuel timing important?
74. How is checked and adjusted? (engine type based on candidate's experience)
75. What is the principle of a diesel engine?
76. Why are 2 springs sometimes used in inlet and exhaust valves?
77. What will you check in springs during o'haul?
78. How does a roto cap work?

79. How is BHP calculation using indicator diagram done?
80. What is MEP and MIP?
80. What is MEP and MIP?
81. What is the difference between the two?
82. Why is cylinder head fitted in engines
83. Are there engines w/o cylhead?
84. Draw 2s timing diagram
85. Why is an expansion tk provided in jcw system?
86. Why do we Blow through' Engines?
87. How is T/C RPM measured?
88. Is there any difference between A/E and M/E Governors
89. Indicator cards why and how are they taken?
90. What is Hydrodynamic lubrication?
91. What is a rolling contact bearing?
92. What is MCR and CSR?
93. What is PS? What is its relation to kW?
94. What was the specific fuel consumption in your last ship?
95. What was the specific Cyl oil consumption?
96. What is the relation between power and rpm of a main diesel engine?
97. What will be the power developed by a main engine if it runs in DD?
98. What is the relation between the ship's speed and engine power?
99. Will the engine develop any power, if it is run when a ship is aground?
100. What is a CPP? How does it function?
101. What is the difference between fuel valve opening pressure and fuel injection pressure?
102. What is an under slung crankshaft?
103. How many crankshafts are there in Vee type engines?
104. How are connecting rods fitted?
105. Do two stroke engines need tappet clearance adjustment?
106. How will you know, without opening anything, that an engine is 2S or 4S?
107. What are the two strokes in 2S engines called?
108. Why does Sulzer use hydraulic jack bolts for main bearings?
109. What is the meaning of TBN in lub oils?
110. Why is LO of different TBN used for M/E cyl oil and Crankcase oil?
111. What are the values of TBN for A/E crankcase oil?
112. What is the difference between "heat" and "temperature" ?
113. If water is found in crank case lo, what could be the cause?

FUNCTION 3: Marine engineering practice                             
1. Explain how will you o'haul a fuel injector
2. Explain how you will change gland packing of a pump.
3. What is a SDNR valve?
4. How do you o'haul a globe valve?
5. How does a gate valve work?
6. If a gate valve is stuck, what could be the reason?
7. How is a job centered on a chuck in a lathe
8. What safety precautions will you take if working on a lathe?
9. What is a reamer? Where is it used?
10. How does a Quick closing valve work?
11. How do you reset a QC valve after operation?
12. Is there any difference between relief valve and safety valve?
13. Explain how will you prepare for Bunkering?
14. How do you set tappet clearance?
15. What are the steps to take after a blackout at sea?
16. How do you pressure test a fuel vale?
17. How will you replace an exhaust valve seat?
18. How do you install a bearing on a shaft?
19. How do you specify pipe size?
20. What do the numbers on bearings mean?
21. What is the common size between different schedules of a pipe?
22. If an A/E does not start what will be your action?
23. Your action if T/C is surging?
24. Why is a Steam trap used in condensate return lines?
25. How is gas cutting done?
26. How many valves are there on a gas-cutting torch?
27. How do you light a gas-cutting torch and adjust the flame?
28. How do you set up a new pipe for welding?
29. What is GPR/GPO/LH electrodes?
30. How do you select the correct current setting for welding?
31. Crank pin brg clearance
32. Telescopic feeler gauge
33. Piston removal procedure
34. Welding defects?
35. Bridge gauge main brg clearance
36. How does a Stud extractor work?
37. How does a chain block work?
38. What are the safeties on cargo cranes ?
39. What are the safeties on ER crane?
40. How is the load controlled during lowering?
41. How is the E/R crane load tested?
42. Fuel valve not coming out?
43. Setting exhaust valve timing
44. Pumps o'haul?
45. Type of drill bits?
46. Types of threads?
47. Pipe schedule?
48. Important dimensions of flanges? Types of flanges?
49. Indications of scavenge fire? What action will you take?
50. Where are wear rings used? What is their purpose?
51. Boiler gauge glass? Reflex type? Blow through procedure?
52. .ISSA code book?
53. SG hunting gear?
54. Axe blade? How fitted?
55. Load test?
56. SCBA pressure testing
57. Welding surface preparation
58. No water in GG ? What action
59. Flaring tool
60. What is an ermato joint?
61. Why is a copper gasket annealed ?
62. How will you supervise a lub oil Filter cleaning?
63. What precautions have to be taken during cleaning of SW line filters?
64. What is a Dead mans alarm
65. What will be your action if your Reliever appears drunk
66. Your oiler appears drunk. What is your action?
67. Compound gauge?
68. Method of blowing through gauge glass
69. Pump shaft broken? Suggest epairs?
70. What is Gear Back lash?
71. What are different types of gears seen in ship?
72. What is hunting tooth
73. Why is gear oil different others?
74. What are the different types of Taps and Dies?
75. Why do you take Ullages? How do you calculate liquid quantity?
76. What is VRF?
77. What do you check up while opening piston?
78. Q closing valve operation? Why do you shut the valve again before opening?
79. Start airline getting hot - what action?
80. Draw a LS of ball bearing fitted on a shaft.
81. What is a lip seal? Sketch
82. Sketch a mechanical seal.
83. Exhaust bellow sketch?
84. What is a dresser coupling
85. What is Bumping Clearance? How do you measure it?
86. Why is a centrifugal pump started with its discharge valve shut?
87. How will you align a pump to its motor?
88. What checks will you make on a bottom end bearing bolt?
89. How do you measure ovality of a crank pin?
90. How does hydraulic tightening work?
91. Why is the jack turned back a little while slackening?
92. What will you check in UP space inspection?
93. How will you do crankcase inspection?
94. Shipside valve is leaking into E/R. What will you do?

FUNCTION : Electro technology and control engineering        

1. What is KVA?
2. What is special about Steering gear Overload safety?
3. Explain the condition for Paralleling of Alternators?
4. What does different position of the synchroscope needle mean; what is the difference between 6 o clock and 12 clock?
5. Why do we close the switch at 11 o'clock and not at 12 o' clock?
6. Why is a Megger used for insulation test and not a multi meter?
7. What are the safeties on MSB?
8. When does Reverse power flow?
9. What is the harm if reverse power flows?
10. How is the protection against reverse power given?
11. How do you test reverse power trip?
12. What is the full form of ACB?
13. If you press the ACB Close button on an idle generator what will happen?
14. What is Under-voltage protection?
15. What is the meaning of preferential trip? Why is it provided?
16. What is the purpose of the earth fault indication on the switch board?
17. If you get an earth fault alarm what will you do?
18. What is Direct Current?
19. What is alternating current?
20. What is meant by phase in AC?
21. Is there phase in DC?
22. Why is DC not much in use now?
23. Where are you likely to see it used?
24. What does three-phase current mean?
25. What is rms value?
26. What is the meaning of power factor?
27. What is the usual value you see onboard?
28. What is the best value possible?
29. What is the benefit of improving power factor?
30. How can it be improved?
31. What is the meaning of saying I and V are in phase?
32. What is the difference between KW, KVA and KVAR?
33. Why are motor ratings given in KW and that of alternator and transformer given in KVA?
34. Where does reactive power go?
35. What is a semi conductor?
36. What is doping?
37. What happens to insulation when temperature rises?
38. What happens to resistance of conductors when temperature rises
39. What is an induction motor?
40. What is "slip"?

41. What is a synchronous motor?
42. Where is it used?
43. How do you use a multimeter?
44. What is an AVO meter?
45. How do you check continuity?
46. What limits the electrical load?
47. What is the voltage used in a meggar?
48. How does current flow during welding?
49. What do we use for welding on ships? AC or DC?
50. What is the voltage?
51. What is the voltage used for ignition in boilers/incinerators etc.?
52. Why is it different from that for welding?
53. Does current flow through hull during welding?
54. If so why don't you get a shock?
55. What is safe voltage to prevent shock?
56. What is the meaning of earthing in a ship?
57. What is the meaning of Star winding/ Delta winding?
58. Is the ship's alternator Star wound or Delta wound?
59. What is the meaning of ACB, MCCB, NFB?
60. What is a magnetic contactor? Where is it used?

61. What is a relay? How is it different from a magnetic contactor?
62. Can you draw a DOL starter circuit?
63. What is the meaning of overload?
64. What is meaning of short circuit?
65. How is protection provided for OL and SC?
66. What is the function of a fuse?
67. What is the normal setting of overload relays?
68. How does a thermal overload relay work?
69. What is single phasing?
70. How can it happen?
71. What is the harm caused by this?
72. What protection is provided against this?
73. Why is it necessary that incoming alternator frequency is more than bus bar?
74. What is dark lamp and bright lamp method for synchronizing? How is the connection made?
75. Apart from renewing bearings is there any reason for opening up motors for maintenance?
76. Why is reverse power protection required?
77. Why is this reverse power used instead of reverse current in alternators?
78. What is the meaning of excitation in an alternator?
79. Is the field current in an alternator AC or DC ?
80. Is the field rotating or stationary?
81. How is it supplied?
82. What is a brush less alternator?
83. How is the excitation achieved in this?
84. What is the meaning of residual magnetism?
85. Why is an air compressor started unloaded?
86. How is the speed of a 3-phase induction motor varied?
87. How is the direction of rotation varied?
88. How does this cause a rotation to change?
89. How is the speed of a DC motor varied?
90. How is the direction varied?
91. What is a diode?
92. What is a zener diode?
93. What is a thyristor? What is an SCR?
94. How does an inverter work?
95. How does a tube light work?
96. What is the function of the starter in a tube light?
97. What is the function of the choke?
98. Where is a slip ring used and where is a commutator used?
99. What is capacitance?
100.            Does current flow though a capacitor?
101.            What is the unit for capacitance ?
102.            What is a neutral?
103.            What is the difference between neutral and earth?
104.            What is a synchronous condenser?
105.            Where and why is it used?
106.            If a motor is wound star and you want to change to delta what should you do?
100 If the AVR, is defective, when additional loads come on will the generator be able to take it?
How do you test, reverse power trip, high current trip, preferential trip?
102. What is residual magnetism? Where is it important?
103. Sometimes, when you change the running direction of a E/R blower (from supply to exhaust) it trips. Why?
104. What is the function of the friction clutch mechanism used in purifiers?
105. What is the regular maintenance done on batteries?
106. What safety precautions need to be taken during maintenance on batteries?
107. Why is special lighting used in battery rooms?
108. What is the voltage available from each cell in a lead acid battery?
109. What is the full battery voltage ?
110. How is this voltage achieved?
111. What is the meaning of a normally open contact?
112. How does a Salinometer function?
113. How does the air compressor start and stop automatically?
114. How is the cold room temperature maintained?
115. What is a self-monitoring alarm circuit?
116. Out at sea, if there is a black out during your watch, what action will you take?
117. After a black out the emergency generator comes on; On restoring the main supply we are closing the circuit breaker of the main generator with out bothering about synchronizing. How is this possible?
118. How does the emergency generator start automatically?
119. If all your air bottles are at low pressure and there is a blackout how do you start the generators?
120. What is a shaft generator?
121. Even though the main engine runs at varying speeds, how does the alternator maintain constant frequency?
122. Is the alternator connected star or delta
123. Why is 440 V used for motors and 110/220 V used for lighting?


FUNCTION: OPERATION OF THE VESSEL AND SAFETY OF PERSONNEL ONBOARD                                                           

1. Fire main line fittings
2. Purifier room fire
3. Paint locker fire
4. CO2 flooding procedure
5. Uptake fires
6. O2 and C2H2 storage and operation safety
9. LB brake/ lowering procedure
10. 103.Deck foam system?
11. 104.Where isolation valves given in fire main?
12. What is hydrogen fire?
13. What are the indications of EGB fire?
14. 2.DCP fire extinguisher?
15. Routine checks on FFA
16. Flammability diagram
17. In your kitchen what fuel is used
18. Why is the flame not traveling to the cylinder
19. LEL, UEL
20. Flammability range?
21. Between a log and a small stick which burns faster
22. When you blow on a matchstick the fire goes out. In a stove/or a black smith's hearth blowing air increases the fire.Why?
23. Why is a Relief Valve fitted on fire main?
24. International shore connection; Size? Where fitted? Which part is standard?
25. Enclosed entry procedure
27. 33 Fire main line isolating valves
28. How does a flame screen work? What is the difference between a flame screen and a flame arrestor?
29. What is a flashback arrestor?
30. Why should Acetylene bottles be used in the upright position?
31. What is the correct position for using a portable foam extinguisher?
32. Why is a sand box provided on the boiler flat?
33. What are gas-free conditions for man entry?
34. Should the ventilation blower be running in supply mode or exhaust mode, when the Oxygen check is made?
35. In a tanker, why are bonding straps used on cargo pipelines?
36. What is the rating of the electrical hand glove?
37. What is the important first aid for an electrical shock victim?
38. Is there any protection for a CO2 cylinder in case of a fire in the CO2 room itself?
39. Is the CO2 in the bottle in liquid condition or gas?
40. How does the CO2 alarm ring when the panel door is opened?
41. Can engine room bilges be pumped out in special areas?
42. What will be your action when you discover smoke coming out of
43. During your watch, if you get a under piston temperature high alarm, what will you do?
44. During your night duty on a UMS vessel, there is a fire alarm from E/R. What will be your action in case of
a. Purifier room fire
b. Running generator exh manifold on fire
c. Boiler front on fire
d. Bilges on fire
45. 102.CO2 and DCP difference?
46. Man overboard drill
47. Oil spill drill
48. Life raft floatation
49. Ship's Whistle? How does it work? Where is it fitted?
50. L boat tricing pendant / Bowsing in tackles; Purpose.
51. What is HRU? How does it work? Where is if fitted?
52. What is a Life buoy? Where is it fitted?
53. What is flash point, firepoint and auto ignition temp.
54. What are the tests done before enclosed space entry?
55. What spaces are defined as such?
56. What is the acceptable HC level for man entry?
57. What is TLV? How many types are there?


1. Deep tank construction
2. Garboard strake, sheer strake
3. Stability and buoyancy
4. Collision bulkhead
5. Camber, margin plate, intercoastal?
6. Free surface effect?
7. Static and dynamic stability?
8. LOLL, GZ,righting lever
9. Pounding effect on rudder
10. What are Skates?
11. Types of floor
12. How ship turns? Rudder function?
13. Why is rudder angle not more than 36 deg?
14. How does the ship move? Propeller function?
15. Why is the thrust bearing fitted aft?
16. What action will you take if there is a thrust bearing high tr alarm?
17. What is a "Torsion Box" in a container ship?
18. Protection/safeties on a generator
19. What is metacentric height? What is its importance?
20. What is dynamic stability? What is its importance?
21. What is a chain stopper?
22. What is a dead man brake?
23. How many brakes are there on a life boat winch?


Singapore Maritime Academy
Class 2 & 1 Engineer CoC

Oral Examination for Class 1 and 2
(Marine Engineer Officers) Certificate of Competency


Marine Diesel Engines/Marine Steam Plants

  • Safe and efficient operation and maintenance of main and auxiliary and control systems
  • Detection of machinery malfunction, location of faults and action to be taken to prevent damage
  • Determination of shaft power, analysis and interpretation of information obtained from monitoring equipment, or by use of equipment on board
  • Fail safe devices, safety devices fitted for the prevention of damage
  • Temporary and permanent repairs in the event of breakdown
  • Periodic examination of the working parts and examinations

Model Questions

  • Draw and explain VIT (B&W).
  • Draw shafting arrangement
  • How to make out if shaft is misaligned.  How to detect misalignment at sea.  What can be done if there is a misalignment?
  • When there one M/E unit temp high and the T/C surges what will your action be and what will you look for?
  • One unit temp high just as you leave port.  What can be the reason (The answer expected is that the temp will naturally be high as the ship is manoeuvring).
  • M/E Manoeuvering diagram – draw and explain.
  • C/S bolt failure – why common in 4 stk engines and not so in 2 stk engines?
  • ME running (out at sea) and suddenly the underpiston space high temp alarm rings and the engine slows down.  When investigated, no problem, all parameters normal.  When speed increased, again same thing happens.  Why?  The engine is B&W, 8 months old (The answer might be that the exhaust v/v is opening late due to a faulty non return valve in the actuator).
  • Power calculation of engines
  • Draw the draw card and explain if the pmax low.  What various cause should be.
  • Fuel p/q timing.  Draw the diagram and explain preparation precaution and step by step to check fuel p/q timing.
  • Pre-planning for performance monitoring.
  • Explain – power calculation
  • Crankcase inspection – in details.
  • Main engine turns on starting air, reaches air cut rpm – but does not fire
  • Determination of TDC when there is no flywheel marks
  • Loaded parts of different bearings?
  • Opening up of main bearing & precautions
  • Performance sheet of a yanmah generator – evaluate
  • Oil mist detector – operating principle
  • Action in case of OMD alarm.
  • Various buttons, switches of oil mist detector
  • How to check the generator fuel oil timing.
  • Performance of G/E data sheet and evaluate.
  • Explain what is VIT.
  • Write M/E all safety devices
  • How to test oil mist detector, overspeed trip, crank are relief door, LO low pressure trip with the circuit diagram
  • How to prevent engine from scavenge fire
  • For exhaust v/v spring air - what are the back up is there
  • Main bearing survey
  • Crasshead pin damage what you will do as C/E
  • Shaft coupling one of the bolt is broken what action you will take
  • Construction features of holding down bolts
  • How many ways to find out shaft power including 4 stroke engine
  • Factors affecting M/E performance
  • Construction features of 1 con doctor and how it works
  • For scaverge air temp how to find out dew point
  • Give the main engine safety features (classify alarms, slowdowns, trips and others)
  • How can the engine get overloaded? (causes & symptoms)
  • What are different cards & diagrams?  Give purposes for each.
  • How will you determine fuel pump faulty?
  • B&W engine timing check? (lead)
  • Give reasons for turbocharger surging and actions to be taken as soon as you come to know at sea?  Also describe trouble shooting
  • Draw B&W & sulzer fuel pump & explain.  Explain VII and range for VIT in B&W and reasons.
  • Write down all the planning that you will do for unit o'haul tomorrow
  • Why is it very important to do power calculation of an engine
  • How to ascertain that the liner calibration tool is accurate?  What are the important clearances to be measured during unit o'haul.
  • How are crank shafts manufactured.  During crank case inspection, what are the things you will check on the crank shaft?  (Looking for Reference marks on the web & journal).



  • Operation, maintenance, periodic inspections
  • Failures and repairs at sea
  • Boiler water treatement
  • Boiler tube leaking, how you will find out which tube is leaking, even through their having 1000 tube
  • Cross section of boiler in your Ship
  • Evaporation rate
  • How to test boiler safety devices with circuit diagram

Model Questions

·         Boiler stopped at low low water level

What would be your action.
  • How will you check Tube Leakage
  • What inspection to be carried out on Boiler water side and smoke side.
  • Difference between a safety valve and a relief valve
  • If a boiler tube is leaking, what is the conventional method of finding out the leaky tube? (The ship is out at sea and the boiler has “10000s of tubes” and the leaky one is somewhere in the middle of the tube bank).
  • Types of boiler tube corrosion
  • Prepare 4th Engr for boiler water circ pump survey.
  • Draw a boiler with all mountings (from your last ship).
  • T/G interlock and L.O low pressure interlocks, how to test?
  • Draw safety valve. why drain is kept below the spring. how this drain water is drain from V/V body. material for V/V body seat, spindle, and others. why V/V body made by cast steel
  • No water on board.  You are 2 weeks away from the nearest port.  Will you use sea water in the boiler?  If so what precautions will you take?
  • BLR safety value setting.
  • BLR chemical treatment and what chemical to be used and what value should it be.
  • BLR casing if crack – what to do.
  • Boiler combustion control
  • Position of Boiler gauge glass and water level controllers and relationship between settings.
  • Boiler corrosion.
  • Why do water treatment.
  • How to check the boiler tube leakage and procedure on how to plug the tube.
  • Boiler survey.
  • Explain preparations for Boiler Survey Safety precautions and procedure & areas
  • Give onboard Boiler tests and reasons for the test.  Scenario:  Both P alkalinity and Chloride content dropping.  Give reason? ( tube leakage)
  • Draw & explain all types of boiler atomisers
  • Draw & explain boiler feed water system.  Draw & explain control system circuit for boiler feed water controller
  • You have found lot of water in service tank.  What is your action.  Your superintendent insists that you repair the steam coil leakage.  How will you go ahead with the repair.  (Looking for draining, isolating the tank and steam coil, air testing of steam coil to confirm leakage, enclosed space entry procedure, gas free certificate, ships safety officer, hotwork permit and inspection tank by classification society surveyor after repair).  (Informing Master Bridge ).
  • Cascade Tank - Looking for draining (Scumming) and finding the fault.  Looking for various possibilities, how can water enter to settling tank/service tank.



  • Principles involved with operation of :
a)    Pumps, pumping systems
b)    Steering gears, stabilizers
c)    Thrust block, shafting, stern tubes, propellers, shipside fittings
d)    Cargo handling equipment & deck machinery
e)    Refrigeration machines, refrigerants, insulation of holds

Model Questions

  • Draw steering gear system follow up and non follow up from bridge to steering.
  • Explain the emergency operation mode of steering from diagram.
  • Steer gear draw N.F.U. system and explain
  • What is feed back.
  • What is the function of Auxiliary Ram and Cylinder
  • What are the steering requirement for tankers.
  • Centrifugal pump – draw and explain (with and without diffuser ring).
  • Draw and explain vane type steering gear.   Explain sealing arrangement of the vanes.
  • Plate type coolers – draw gasket sealing arrangement.
  • Draw steering gear. single phasing – Regulation. by pass DV/V - Isolating V/V why & how works
  • Draw and explain sewage plant.
  • Draw and explain both types of fuel pumps.
  • Draw steering gear system including from bridge to rudder and explain principle.How to do with emergency steering.How to purge air.
  • Refrigerant System draw diagram and explain.  How to change refrigerant. air in the system. cold room temp not coming down.
  • Steering system in details.  Single failure concept.  Draw (50%) from transmitted upto rudder with single failure concept.
  • Sluggish action of steering gear
  • How to do Air Compressor Survey
  • What are the safety devices fitted and how to test them with circuit diagram
  • 2nd stage safety v/v lifting why
  • Factors affecting volumetric efficiency
  • What are the setting pressure of air relief v/v & LO pressure relief v/v.
  • Draw a steering gear system with single failure requirements - from wheel house to steering gear platform including electrical circuit (trasmilter, receiver
  • Explain PPt mechanism
  • Draw a by pass v/v and how it works
  • Draw central cooling system, advantage & disadvantage
  • How to protect the cooler from corrosion
  • Draw the refrigeration circuit and explain in detail the importance of each equipment, safety devices, cut outs, etc. Short cycling causes & symptoms, charging of refrigerant - precautions & procedures.  Disadvantage of gas charging?
  • Draw hydraulic circuit for deck winch & explain.
  • Draw strg gear & explain.  Reasons for sluggish movement of rudder
  • Steering Gear System (H Ram - 50% Torque)  Diagram & its operation, alarm system
  • Draw steering gear mechanisem.  (Electrohydrolic, with electrical transmitter and receiver) and explain.  Explain the function of by pass valves, shock relief valves, line relief valves and how they work.  (Looking for prevention of hydraulic locking locking by pass valves during stand still/dead circuit/ship in port).



  • Properties, heat treatment & suitability.

Model Questions

  • What is forging?  Types of crankshafts, their advantages and disadvantages.
  • Heat treatment processes.  An example for each component on board
  • Materials for major components of diesel engine with composition (%)
  • Materials for sea water system
  • Material of fuel oil high pressure pipe
  • What is forging, case hardening, Alloy
  • How will you carry out Cast Iron welding to cracked pump base onboard?  Give also precautions?
  • Give propeller materials for modern cargo ship including names of alloying materials and the heat treatments given.  Also reason for each alloying material
  • Welding material - why more prone to corrosion
  • Ship Materials. why mild steel is used. properties of HTS. Diff. between HTS & mild steel.
  • heat treatment process. properties of C.Iron. Diff. types of steel and percentage of carbon in it.
  • What kind of heat treatment for crankshaft?
  • What is corrosion?  How may types of corrosion?  How corrosion takes place?  What is oxygen pilting?  Where in the engine room or what are the areas in engine room where corrosion can take place (other than deck). (Looking for definition, flow of OH ions and pitting of anode).
  • What is heat treatment?  Where it is applied in machineries?  What is forging?  Why it is done and its advantages?  What is surface hardening?  Where it is done?  Draw different types of crank shafts?  (Fully, Semi, Forged, Welded).


Lubricating oils

  • Significance and measurement of viscosity.
  • Aspects and prevention of oil deterioration, additives.

Model Questions

  • L.O analysis from the chart.  What actions do you recommend as a chief engineer.
  • Cylinder lub oil property
  • Specification of crank case oil
  • Crank-case LO contamination.  Causes & action
  • Steps you will take to keep main Engine Lub. Oil in good condition
  • How as 2nd Engineer you will maintain lubricating oil onl your ship?  (Looking for care taking from bunkering, purifying, onboard tests and lab reports with spectrographic analysis).
  • You have mentioned previously that malfunction of purifier can also lead to oil contamination?  How it is possible.  Draw & explain purifier bowl.  Gravity disc, point of oil entry and exit.


Fuel Oils

  • Types, specifications, storage, removal of impurities
  • Fuel characteristics and combustion

Model Questions

·         If you get a very bad fuel in your last bunker, how will you manage on board.

·         What are the Standard ISO 1287 RMH 55 limitations for various FO contents (eg. PS : Gravity, Viscosity, Flash Point, Carbon Residue, Vanadium aluminium, Water Content Sulphur Ash) and their effect on engine if exceeding values.

·         What is the effect of Low Sulphur fuel on engine.

·         What all consideration you will keep in mind before ordering Bunker

·         Effect of Pour Point on Handling Fuel.

·         How to treat fuel oil.  What is the effect about various component.

·         How is the purifier to treat the oil.
·         List down fuel oil specification and problems encountered with fuel oil.
·         Bunker specification. How to remove catalytic fines from fuel.
·         HFO service Tank Drain v/v chocked, how to repair it with necessary safety precaution
·         What's viscosity Index?
·         You have found a lot of water in fuel oil settling tank.  What is your action.
·         You have found oil in cascade tank.  What is your action.
·         What are the connections (fittings) in a settling/service tank.  Name them.



  • AC/DC machines/motors: Construction, operation, maintenance and protective devices
  • Elementary electronics
  • Electrical measuring instruments
  • Transformers, distribution systems, ac/dc shipboard installations
  • Protective devices, fuses, circuit breakers, earth lamp.  Insulation and insulation testing.

Model Questions

  • Draw a switchboard distribution system and explain.
  • Regulation for the M.S.B. according to SOLAS
  • Explain how the steering motors are fed from the M.S.B.
  • Steering gear power in emergency.  What are the steering gear motor protection.
  • Emergency generator.  How it is connected to M.S.B (also the shore connection).
  • Duration of transitional batteries
  • Duration of Emergency generator power supply.
  • 2 generators are running in parallel.  One starts to shift load on the other.  What can be the reason.
  • When an ACB does not close what can the reasons be?
  • Star and delta starting arrangement (with aux contacts) – draw and explain.
  • Earth Fault lamp.  Draw diagram explanation
  • Emergency battery supply emerging power supply regulation requirement.
  • Blackout.  What’s cause.  What to do.  How is the sequence going on.
  • Megger testing
  • Why star delta connection.  Draw the star delta circuit diagram with protection device
  • How many ways to find out earth fault
  • Electrical - AVR figure & explanation
  • Generator - excitation circuit (figure)
  • What is a circuit breaker?  Explain how it works?  Draw arc chute arrangement and arcing contacts.
  • A/E performance analysing
  • instruct 3/E, how to check A/E for fault finding
  • AVR Draw. problem with AVR/can we run A/E without AVR.


Naval Architecture

  • Elementary ship construction
  • Types of vessels, definition and terminology in ship construction
  • Description and functions of major components and materials
  • Stresses in ship structure
  • Structural strength for cargo and machinery space openings
  • Watertight integrity, closing devices, ventilation, air and sounding pipes
  • Principles of stability, effects of free surfaces, load line
  • Tank filling and pumping arrangements
  • Penetration of deck and bulkheads
  • Maintenance and protection of hull, corrosion problems and methods of protection
  • Stresses of the ship
  • Draw aft and arrangement (stern) of ship
  • Difference between Balanced & Semi balanced rudders

Model Questions

Load Line
  • What as a Chief Engineer to check on Deck.
  • What is the height of vent pipe any casualty (M T Brier).
  • What is the significance of knowing these rules (any alteration made should be according to the laid up rules).
  • Why machinery and accommodation doors are provided with sill height
  • What are the water tight doors and where you will find them onboard
  • What is the difference between water tight and weather tight doors any casuality (Herald of Free Enterprise).
  • Prepare for Load Line survey.  What do you do?

Types of surveys?
  • Mandatory certificates on board.

  • Causes of sluggish action of rudder
  • Stability free surface effect and how to reduce it.
  • Rudder carrier sectional drawing and explain how it work.
  • How to check the rudder carrier bearing wear down
  • Draw Plimsoll mark and explain load line survey
  • Explain difference between weather tight, gas tight and water tight doors
  • Mid-crossection of Bulk-carrier. Functions of various strength members. types of floor, where used, distance. EIR bottom arrangement. sheers stake, stringer, stiffener distance, why, how. why so many manhole doors in the floor.
  • E/Room exhaust funnel arrangement.  (Exh. of M/E, A/E, boiler)


Fire Fighting

  • Methods of and aids for fire prevention, detection and extinction
  • Principles of operation, application and maintenance of fire extinguishers, respirators, safety lamps
  • Fixed fire detection and extinguishing arrangements for accommodation, cargo and machinery spaces
  • Precautions against fire or explosion, explosive mixtures
  • Dangers of oil leakage
  • Sources of ignition, safety devices
  • Draw CO2 flooding system & explain
    1. Why master v/v open first
    2. How you will instruct your 4/E before entering into CO2 room

·         What are the fire detectors.  Draw all of them
·         Which one is the most sensitive one
·         Your junior reports to you that exhaust temperature of one unit of Main Engine is high.  What will be your action.  (Looking for comparing Local & Remote pyrometer and a possible cause of scavenge fire).

Model Questions

·         CO2  Flooding system.  Draw a system with a pneumatic operated cylinder not the one with wire and pulley.
·         Draw and explain the High Expansion System
·         Comparison between CO2 and Foam System advantages and disadvantage of each.
·         Draw a smoke type fire detector with circuit.
·         Draw all types of fire detectors.
·         What is a fire tetrahedron?
·         What is a fire door?
·         Smoke detector (ionisation, light scattering).
·         What inspection and maintenance you do on the fixed CO2 system.
·         Give one fixed fire fighting equipment arrangement.  Draw & Describe.  Give technicalities of foam for this purpose.
·         Disadvantages.  Paint locker fire fighting arrangement
·         Draw 9L CO2 extinguisher
·         CO2 flooding system/requirement/regulation (figure)
·         (CO2 cabinet door circuit)
·         Draw & explain all types of fire extinguishers
·         What is fire tetrahedron?  What is its importance?  Draw the tetrahedron and explain sides.


Safe working practices

  • Overhauling machinery
  • Safety in workshop
  • Handling of repairs of electrical machines and systems
  • Protective equipment, lifting tackle
  • Entering tanks and void spaces
  • Vessels in dock, overhauls at shipyards
  • Taking bunkers
  • Explain a thorough scavenge space inspection?

Model Questions

  • Entry enclosed space procedures
  • Which part of the engine room cannot do welding
  • Engine room overhead crane testing procedure(load test)
  • Tanker hazardous area
  • FWD deck store, one of the bracket is broken in oil tanker, with necessary safety precaution how to repair it
  • Draw IG system, all safety devices testing
  • PV breaker, Deck Seal Draw
  • Aftpeak tank enclosed space entry to be made.  Describe procedure & planning (if entry from steering gear room where lot of activity).
  • Give planning and safe working practice procedure for Main Switch Board Testing
  • Tanker dangerous zones - draw and the kind of apparatus in each zones & why
  • CO2 room entry procedure
  • CO2 room maintenance
  • Hot work permit. can we do hot work in the E/R.
  • You are a 2nd Engineer and you have a level guage on bunker tank of your ship.  It is getting spoiled.  Will you wait till it gets completely spoiled or you will try to do something with it?


Automation and instrumentation

  • Fundamentals of automation, instrumentation and control systems
  • Periodically unattended machinery, techniques and work practices
  • Bridge control

Model Questions

  • Draw ACC for boiler.
  • Explain how level measurement is done on board?
  • Types of protection for heat exchangers
  • What is back flushing of a cooler and how is it done?
  • Explain the construction of an explosion proof equipment.
  • Draw a control circuit of viscotherm
  • Draw M/E Jacket cooling water controller including line diagram with flapper, nozzle mechanism
  • How to avoid Jkt water controller hunting during engine manoeuvring and reasons
  • Control - PID controller, Fig. and operation
  • How may types of level gauges.  Draw & explain any one of them?
  • What are the UMS ship requirements?  Have you worked on UMS ships before?


Emergency procedure and equipment

  • Grounding
  • Damaged propeller
  • Failure of steering gear
  • Abandon ship

Model Questions


·         Scenario

Company ordered master to reach port before sunset , otherwise they will have to wait at anchorage for 3 to 4 days.  So master alter his courage and while running at full RPM, the ship ran aground.  Describe being Chief Engineer, what immediate action to be taken.  Briefly about Survey Port State Control.
  • Closing arrangement of E/R dampers and quick closing valves.  Explain the working.
  • Grounding.  What to do. 2/E duty when ship grounded. what is the position of the sounding cap. why main brg can be damage when grounded.
  • Rescue from enclosed space
  • If there is an emergency or critical equipment failure on your joining vessel, how will you handle it?
  • If new 4/E joins with you how will you instruct about fire fighting (scenario: puri room fire)



  • Regulations to be observed to prevent pollution of marine environment.  Port regulations, International Regulations – MARPOL 73/78
  • Methods and aids to prevent pollution:
Oil filtering equipment, oil content monitor, sewerage treatment plant, incinerator.

Model Questions

  • MARPOL annex I Reg.9 – Discharge of oil.
  • Discharge of Oil
  • Oil Record Book
  • ODM  Regulation
  • Regulations for Tankers to discharge oily mixture
  • What is marpol 73/78? Annexe 1 – what do you know?
  • Pollution prevention draw diagram O.W.S and explain.
  • What is the duty for 2/E about bunkering .What to do if the oil spill.What content of sopep.
  • Oily water separator drawing and explain operation and what is siphon tube purpose. how oil probe working. oil record book, why we should we make entry when any bilge operation
  • Explain Marpol annex I and requirement pumping bilges in special area
  • Annex I - Reg, 4, 9, 10, 16, 20, 26 explain
  • What are the items recorded in oil record book
  • Draw oily water separator & explain
  • How the 15 ppm alarm works
  • Give all annexes of Marpol 73/78.  Describe & list oil discharge regulations for tanker cargo & engine room oily water mixture.
  • Give areas & reason for designating an area as special.
  • Draw IG system and Describe. Give safety features - IG systems alarms, trips, interlocks
  • Scenario:  Service tank drain v/v choked actions?
  • Oily-water separator (diagram). Operation of oil level sensing probe (Electrical Circuit). Operational procedure.
  • Annex 1 in detail (oil pollution)
  • Annex 5 in detail (garbage)
  • Draw and explain oily water separator.  What is the starting procedure?  (Looking for Noting down position from bridge and recording in ORB).  What do you understand by MARPOL?  What are the Annexes?  Why you take positions when starting oily water separator.  Why it is purged and filled with seawater before starting.
  • oil record book, why we should we make entry when any bulge operation



  • Administrative duties: writing of reports, preparing log abstracts, maintaining store inventories, requisition of consumable stores and spare parts
  • Organisation and training of staff for
a)    normal duties
b)    emergency duties
c)    use of safety equipment

Model Questions

  • About ISM
  • 2nd Engineer Duty.
  • How to make junior work safely and how to train newly joined cadet.
  • You are newly promoted to rank of 2/E and visit office, what are the things you will find out from office and why?
  • After joining the vessel, what are the things you will do, priority wise? And why?
  • In case Second Engineer and other engineers are too busy, how will you find out the Emergency and safety equipment locations and emergency escape routes?  (From LSA, FFA plans posted near ships office)
  • How will you know about condition of LSA, FFA equipments? (Record Books) and other emergency equipments
  • Give the definition of ISM, dates of incorporation of 2 phases, tonnages applicable to diff ships. Mention different clauses of ISM and SMS and explain
  • Explain "Training of Staff" (in accordance with regulations)
  • Give certificates & validity (carried onboard)
  • Engine room safety equipment survey preparations.
  • How will you train your Junior Staff?



  • Knowledge of casualties (at sea or in port), lessons learnt, methods of prevention
  • Understanding and compliance with recommendations laid out in Shipping circulars, Merchant Shipping Notices

Model Questions

  • Discuss a few casualties which you have read about, the lessons learnt and methods of prevention.
  • Differences between M notices and Shipping circulars
  • What are the shipping circulars ?.  Give Example



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